This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Occupant Kinematics and Shoulder Belt Retention in Far-Side Lateral and Oblique Collisions: A Parametric Study
Published November 11, 2013 by The Stapp Association in United States
Annotation ability available
In far-side impacts, head contact with interior components is a key injury mechanism. Restraint characteristics have a pronounced influence on head motion and injury risk. This study performed a parametric examination of restraint, positioning, and collision factors affecting shoulder belt retention and occupant kinematics in far-side lateral and oblique sled tests with post mortem human subjects (PMHS). Seven PMHS were subjected to repeated tests varying the D-ring position, arm position, pelvis restraint, pre-tensioning, and impact severity. Each PMHS was subjected to four low-severity tests (6.6 g sled acceleration pulse) in which the restraint or position parameters were varied and then a single higher-severity test (14 g) with a chosen restraint configuration (total of 36 tests). Three PMHS were tested in a purely lateral (90° from frontal) impact direction; 4 were tested in an oblique impact (60° from frontal). All subjects were restrained by a 3-point seatbelt. Occupant motion was tracked with a 3D optoelectric high speed motion capture system. For all restraint configurations, the 60° oblique impact angle was associated with greater lateral head excursion than the 90° impact angle. This unexpected result reflects the increased axial rotation of the torso in the oblique impacts, which allowed the shoulder to displace more relative to the shoulder belt and thus the head to displace more relative to the sled buck. Restraint engagement of the torso and shoulder was actually greater in the purely lateral impacts than in the oblique impacts. Pretensioning significantly reduced lateral head excursion (175 mm average in the low-severity tests across all restraint configurations).
- Jason L. Forman - University of Virginia
- Francisco Lopez-Valdes - University of Virginia
- David J. Lessley - University of Virginia
- Patrick Riley - University of Virginia
- Mark Sochor - University of Virginia
- Sara Heltzel - University of Virginia
- Joseph Ash - University of Virginia
- Rafal Perz - University of Virginia
- Richard W. Kent - University of Virginia
- Thomas Seacrist - Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
- Kristy B. Arbogast - Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
- Hiromasa Tanji - Takata Corporation
- Kazuo Higuchi - Takata Corporation
CitationForman, J., Lopez-Valdes, F., Lessley, D., Riley, P. et al., "Occupant Kinematics and Shoulder Belt Retention in Far-Side Lateral and Oblique Collisions: A Parametric Study," SAE Technical Paper 2013-22-0014, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-22-0014.
- Arbogast, K. B., Mathews, E. A., Seacrist, T., Maltese, M. R., Hammond, R., Balasubramanian, S. et al. (2012). The effect of pretensioning and age on torso rollout in restrained human volunteers in far-side lateral and oblique loading. Stapp Car Crash J., 56, 443-467.
- Augenstein, J., Perdeck, E., Martin, P., Bowen, J., Stratton, J., Horton, T. et al. (2000). Injuries to restrained occupants in far-side crashes. Annu. Proc. Assoc. Adv. Automot. Med., 44, 57-66.
- Bostrom, O., Fildes, B., Morris, A., Sparke, L., Smith, S., & Judd, R. (2003). A cost effective far side crash simulation. I.J.Crash, 8, 307-313.
- Bostrom, O., Gabler, H. C., Digges, K., Fildes, B., & Sunnevang, C. (2008). Injury reduction opportunities of far side impact countermeasures. Ann. Adv. Automot. Med., 52, 289-300.
- Bostrom, O. & Haland, Y. (2005). Benefits of a 3+2 point belt system and an inboard torso-side support in frontal, far side and rollover crashes. Int.J.Vehicle Safety, 1.
- Digges, K. & Dalmotas, D. (2001). Injuries to restrained occupants in far side crashes. In Proc.7th International Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles.
- Douglas, C. A., Fildes, B. N., Gibson, T. J., Bostrom, O., & Pintar, F. A. (2007). Factors influencing occupant-to-seat belt interaction in far-side crashes. Annu. Proc. Assoc. Adv. Automot. Med., 51, 319-339.
- Fildes, B., Sparke, L., Bostrom, O., Pintar, F., Yoganandan, N., & Morris, A. (2002). Suitability of current side impact test dummies in far side impacts. In Proc. Conference of the International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Impact.
- Fildes, B. N., Lane, J. C., Lenard, J., & Vulcan, A. P. (1991). Passenger cars and occupant injury: side impact crashes (Rep. No. Monash University Accident Research Centre, CR95).
- Frampton, R. J., Brown, R., Thomas, P., & Fay, P. (1998). The importance of non struck side occupants in side collisions. In 42nd Ann. Proc. of the Assoc. for the Advancement of Automot. Med. (pp. 303-320).
- Gabler, H. C., Fitzharris, M., Scully, J., Fildes, B. N., Digges, K., & Sparke, L. (2005). Far side impact injury risk for belted occupants in Australia and the United States. Proceedings of the International Technical Conference on the Enhaced Safety of Vehicles, Paper No.05-0420.
- Gennarelli, T. A. & Wodzin, E. (2005). The Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005 Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine.
- Horsch, J.D., Schneider, D.C., Kroell, C.K., Raasch, F.D. (1979) Response of belt restrained subjects in simulated lateral impact. Proc. 23rd Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Paper No. 791005.
- Kallieris, D. & Schmidt, G. (1990). Neck Response and Injury Assessment Using Cadavers and the US-SID for Far-Side Lateral Impacts of Rear Seat Occupants with Inboard Anchored Shoulder Belts. In Proceedings of the 34th STAPP Car Crash Conference.
- Kent, R., Lopez-Valdes, F., Forman, J., Seacrist, T., Higuchi, K., & Arbogast, K. (2012). PMHS experiments to evaluate shoulder belt retention in oblique impacts. JSAE Annual Congress Paper Number 20125172.
- Kent, R., Forman, J., Lessley, D., Arbogast, K., & Higuchi, K. (2013). A parametric study of far-side restraint mechanics. Proc. Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles Paper No.13-0381.
- Klinich, K.D., Flannagan, C.A.C., Nicholson, K., Schneider, L.W., Rupp, J.D. (2010) Factors associated with abdominal injury in frontal, farside, and nearside crashes. Stapp Car Crash Journal, 54, 73-91.
- Lessley, D., Shaw, G., Riley, P., Forman, J., & Crandall, J. (2011). Assessment and validation of a methodology for measuring anatomical kinematics of restrained occupants during motor vehicle collisions. J.Biosens.Bioelectron., S1.
- Lessley, D., Shaw, G., Parent, D., Arregui-Dalmases, C., Kindig, M., Riley, P., Takayama, S., Ono, K., Kamiji, K., Yasuki, T., (2010) Whole-body response to pure lateral impact. Stapp Car Crash Journal, 54, 289-336.
- Lopez-Valdes, F. J., Lau, A., Lamp, J., Riley, P., Lessley, D. J., Damon, A. et al. (2010). Analysis of spinal motion and loads during frontal impacts. Comparison between PMHS and ATD. Ann. Adv. Automot. Med., 54, 61-78.
- Mackay, G. M., Hill, J., Parkin, S., & Munns, J. A. R. (1993). Restrained occupants on the nonstruck side in lateral collisions. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 25, 147-152.
- McCoy, R. W. & Balavich, K. M. (2005). Analysis of a prototype electric retractor, a seat belt pre-tensioning device and dummy lateral motion prior to vehicle rollover. SAE World Congress SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0945.
- McCoy, R. W. & Chou, C. C. (2007). A study of kinematics of occupants restrained with seat belt systems in component rollover tests. SAE World Congress SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0709.
- Pintar, F. A., Yoganandan, N., Stemper, B. D., Bostrom, O., Rouhana, S. W., Digges, K. H. et al. (2007). Comparison of PMHS, WorldSID, and THOR-NT responses in simulated far side impact. Stapp Car Crash J., 51, 313-360.
- Pintar, F. A., Yoganandan, N., Stemper, B. D., Bostrom, O., Rouhana, S. W., Smith, S. et al. (2006). Worldsid assessment of far side impact countermeasures. Annu. Proc. Assoc. Adv. Automot. Med., 50, 199-219.
- Robbins, D. H. (1983). Anthropometric specifications for mid-sized male dummy, volume 2 (Rep. No. UMTRI-83-53-2). University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI).
- Rouhana, S. W., Kankanala, S. V., Prasad, P., Rupp, J. D., Jeffreys, T. A., & Schneider, L. W. (2006). Biomechanics of 4-point seat belt systems in farside impacts. Stapp Car Crash J., 50, 267-298.
- Shaw, G., Parent, D., Purtsezov, S., Lessley, D., Crandall, J., Kent, R. et al. (2009). Impact response of restrained PMHS in frontal sled tests: skeletal deformation patterns under seat belt loading. Stapp Car Crash J., 53, 1-48.
- Society of Automotive Engineers (1995). J211-1 Instrumentation for impact test - part 1 - electronic instrumentation. Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice, SAE International.
- Stolinski, R., Grzebieta, R., & Fildes, B. (1998). Side impact protection-occupants in the far-side seat. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 3, 93-122.
- Sword, M. L. & Louden, A. E. (2009). NHTSA research on improved restraints in rollovers. In Proc. International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles Paper Number 09-0483.
- Tornvall, F. (2008). Development of a new shoulder for the THOR dummy intended for oblique collisions. Chalmers University, Goteborg, Sweden.
- Tornvall, F. V., Svensson, M. Y., Davidsson, J., Flogard, A., Kallieris, D., & Haland, Y. (2005). Frontal impact dummy kinematics in oblique frontal collisions: evaluation against post mortem human subject test data. Traffic. Inj. Prev., 6, 340-350.
- Yoganandan, N., Pintar, F. A., Gennarelli, T. A., & Maltese, M. R. (2000). Patterns of abdominal injuries in frontal and side impacts. In 44th Ann. Proc. Assoc. for the Adv. of Automotive Med. (pp. 17-36).