This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Risks of Pedestrian Serious Injuries and Fatalities associated with Impact Velocities of Cars in Car-versus-pedestrian Accidents in Japan
Published November 11, 2013 by The Stapp Association in United States
Annotation ability available
The first purpose of this study is to clarify the relation between the car impact velocity and pedestrian injury severity or mortality risk. We investigated the frequency of serious injuries and fatalities of pedestrians using vehicle-pedestrian accident data from the database of the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) in Japan. The vehicle types considered are sedans, minivans, and box vans (ordinary automobiles) and light passenger cars and light cargo vans (light automobiles). The results revealed that a 10-km/h reduction in impact velocity could mitigate severe pedestrian injuries in cases involving impact velocities of 40 km/h or more for the five vehicle types analyzed. Specifically, if the impact velocity was 30 km/h or less, the frequency of serious injuries was less than 27% and the frequency of fatalities was less than 5% for the five vehicle types. Therefore, if the collision damage mitigation braking system (CDMBS) that uses a sensor to detect pedestrians can effectively reduce the impact velocity for various vehicle types, pedestrian injuries will be greatly mitigated. The second purpose of this study is to identify the factors that affect injury risk. Impact experiments were conducted in which a sedan impacted against a pedestrian full-scale dummy at 40 km/h and a pedestrian headform impactor was impacted against a road surface. The results indicated that the risk of pedestrian serious injury was significantly affected by multiple impact conditions, such as the pedestrian height, car impact velocity, car frontal shape, and car stiffness in cases where the car impacted the pedestrian's head, the degrees of influence of which were driven by the vehicle impact velocity.
CitationMatsui, Y., Oikawa, S., and Ando, K., "Risks of Pedestrian Serious Injuries and Fatalities associated with Impact Velocities of Cars in Car-versus-pedestrian Accidents in Japan," SAE Technical Paper 2013-22-0008, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-22-0008.
- Akiyama A., Okamoto M., and Rangarajan N. (2001) Development and Application of the New Pedestrian Dummy, Proceeding of 17th International Technical Conference on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (CD).
- Anderson R.W.G., McLean A.J., Farmer M.J.B., Lee B.H. and Brooks C.G. (1997) Vehicle travel speeds and the incidence of fatal pedestrian crashes, Accident Analysis and Prevention 29: 667-674.
- Cabinet Office (2009) Current traffic accident situation and future safety countermeasure, White Paper on Traffic Safety (in Japanese).
- European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (1998) Improved Test methods to evaluate pedestrian protection afforded by passenger cars, EEVC Working Group 17 Draft Report.
- Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis of Japan (ITARDA) (2013) Annual Traffic Accident Report in 2012 (in Japanese) Tokyo.
- Kuzumaki S. (2009) Our approach to a safe sustainable society, Journal of Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan (in Japanese) 63(12): 11-19, paper number 20094737.
- Kyowa electronic instruments Co Ltd. Web (2012): http://www.kyowa-ei.co.jp/eng/product/automobile/crash
- Kong, C. and Yang J. (2010) Logistic regression analysis of pedestrian casualty risk in passenger vehicle collisions in China, Accident Analysis & Prevention 42(4): 987-993.
- Makabe S. (2012) Active safety system new eyesight version 2, Journal of society of automotive engineers of Japan (in Japanese) 66(3): 88-93, paper number 20124157.
- Matsui Y., Ishikawa H. and Sasaki A. (1999) Pedestrian injuries induced by the bonnet leading edge in current car-pedestrian accident, SAE Transactions Journal of Passenger Cars, Section 6 108: 1171-1178.
- Matsui Y., Wittek A. and Konosu A. (2002) Comparison of pedestrian subsystem safety tests using impactors and full-scale dummy tests, SAE Transactions Journal of Passenger Cars: Mechanical Systems Journal 111(6): 1449-1464.
- Matsui Y. (2003) New Injury Reference Values Determined by TRL Legform Impactor from Accident Reconstruction Test, International Journal of Crashworthiness 8(2):179-188.
- Matsui Y. and Tanahashi M. (2004) Development of JAMA-JARI Pedestrian Headform Impactor in Compliance with ISO and IHRA Standards, International Journal of Crashworthiness 9(2): 129-139.
- Matsui Y. (2004b) Crash characteristics and HIC values of pedestrian head impacts in front windshield area, Journal of Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan (in Japanese) 35(1): 191-197.
- Matsui Y. (2004c) Proposal of injury risk curves for evaluating pedestrian head injury risk using headform impactor based on accident reconstruction, Journal of Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan (in Japanese) 35(4): 221-228.
- Matsui Y. and Niimura K. (2005) Selection of suitable accelerometer and improvement of pedestrian headform impactor for impact test against passenger car windshield, Transactions of Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan (in Japanese) 36(4): 187-194.
- Matsui Y., Takabayashi M. and Tanahashi M. (2005a) Characteristic of 3.5 kg pedestrian legform impactor prototypes developed by JAMA-JARI and ACEA-TNO, International Journal of Crashworthiness 10(2): 197-210.
- Matsui Y., Wittek A. and Tanahashi M. (2005b) Pedestrian kinematics due to impacts by various passenger cars using full-scale dummy, International Journal of Vehicle Safety 1(1/2/3): 64-84.
- Matsui Y. (2011) Improvement of accelerometers for pedestrian headform impactors in testing following Japanese vehicle safety regulations, International Journal of Vehicle Safety 5(4): 307-318.
- Matsui Y., Kojima T., Tanaka N., Hatano T., Hirose T., Sekine M., Oikawa S. and Ando K. (2011a), Performances of the collision damage mitigation braking system for pedestrians, First International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology toward zero-traffic-accident (FAST Zero '11) (CD).
- Matsui Y., Han Y. and Mizuno K. (2011b) Performance of collision damage mitigation braking systems and their effects on human injury in the event of car-to-pedestrian accidents, Stapp Car Crash Journal 55: 461-478.
- Matsui Y., Hitosugi M. and Mizuno K. (2011c) Severity of Vehicle Bumper Location in Vehicle-to-Pedestrian Impact Accidents, Forensic Science International 212(1-3): 205-209.
- Matsui Y., Takahashi K., Imaizumi R. and Ando K. (2011d) Car-to-pedestrian contact situations in near-miss incidents and real-world accidents in Japan, 22nd International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, paper number 11-0164.
- Matsui Y., Doi T., Oikawa S. and Ando K. (2013) Features of Fatal Pedestrian Injuries in Vehicle-to-Pedestrian Accidents in Japan, Paper2013-01-0777, SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety 1(2): 297-308.
- Mertz H.J. (2000) Injury risk assessments based on dummy responses, Accidental Injury, Springer-Verlag, pp.89-102.
- Noda A. and Matsui Y. (2013) Introduction of research committee on damage mitigation brake system for pedestrian detection, Journal of society of automotive engineers of Japan (in Japanese) 66 (12): 54-59.
- National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) (2012), Chronological Science Tables (in Japanese).
- Oh C., Kang Y., Youn Y. and Konosu A. (2008a) Development of probabilistic pedestrian fatality model for characterizing pedestrian-vehicle collisions, International Journal of Automotive Technology 9(2): 191-196.
- Oh C., Kang Y. and Kim W. (2008b) Assessing the safety benefits of an advanced vehicular technology for protecting pedestrians, Accident Analysis and Prevention 40(3): 935-942.
- Okamoto, Y., Akiyama, A., Okamoto, M. and Kikuchi, Y. (2001) A Study of the Upper Leg Component Tests Compared with Pedestrian Dummy Tests, Proceeding of 17th International Technical Conference on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (CD).
- Pintar F., Yoganandan N., Hines M., McFadden J., Saul R., Eppinger R., Khaewpong N., Kleinberger M. (1997) Chestband analysis of human tolerance to side impact, 41st STAPP Car Crash Conference, pp. 63-74, paper number 973320. Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA.
- Research Committee for Pedestrian Protection against Vehicle Impact (1972) Granted project report for improvement of safety performance of passenger car Vol. 2, Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI): 60-71.
- Rosen E. and Sander U (2009) Pedestrian fatality risk as a function of car impact speed, Accident Analysis and Prevention 41: 536-542.
- Sekiguchi M. (2011) Introduction of SUBARU advanced driving system “EyeSight ver.2”, Proceedings of Safety Engineering Symposium 2011 (in Japanese), paper number OS-C-3.
- Shibata E. (2009) Development of driving assist system “EyeSight” by new stereo camera, Journal of Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan (in Japanese) 63(2): 93-98, paper number 20094102.