This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Wind-Tunnel and On-Road Wind Noise: Comparison and Replication
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 08, 2013 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
A KIA Soul was instrumented to measure the relative velocity (magnitude and yaw angle) at the front of the vehicle and in-cabin sound at a location close to the side glass near the A-pillar vortex impingement. Tests were conducted at a proving ground under a range of conditions from low wind conditions (~3 m/s) to moderate (7-8 m/s) wind speeds. For any given set of atmospheric conditions the velocity and sound data at any given position on the proving ground were noted to be very repeatable, indicating that the local wakes dominated the "turbulent" velocity field.
Testing was also conducted in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel in smooth flow and with a number of novel turbulence generating methods. The resulting sounds were analyzed to study the modulation at frequencies likely to result in fluctuation strength type noise. The wind-tunnel results were compared to the on-road measurements to investigate the potential of generating repeatable and controllable turbulence in a wind tunnel which replicates the modulated noise experienced on-road.
The results showed that the novel methods used do increase the modulation significantly and subjective analysis indicates that the modulation generated was similar to that experienced on-road. Analytical analysis of the same data showed the extent of the modulation and it was found that that the magnitude of the modulation was too high at low modulation frequencies and too low at higher frequencies. It is believed that with further development of the wind-tunnel techniques the distribution over the modulation frequencies of interest could be improved.
CitationThompson, M., Watkins, S., and Kim, J., "Wind-Tunnel and On-Road Wind Noise: Comparison and Replication," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1255, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-01-1255.
- Cogotti , A. Generation of a Controlled Level of Turbulence in the Pininfarina Wind Tunnel for the Measurement of Unsteady Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0430 2003 10.4271/2003-01-0430
- Cogotti , A. Update on the Pininfarina “Turbulence Generation System” and its effects on the Car Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-0807 2004 10.4271/2004-01-0807
- Cogotti , A. , Cardano , D. , Carlino , G. , and Cogotti , F. Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics of Passenger Cars in a Controlled High Turbulence Flow: Some New Results SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1455 2005 10.4271/2005-01-1455
- Cooper , K. and Watkins , S. The Unsteady Wind Environment of Road Vehicles, Part One: A Review of the On-road Turbulent Wind Environment SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1236 2007 10.4271/2007-01-1236
- Fastl H. and Zwicker E. Psychoacoustics - Facts and Models 2 nd Springer 1999 3-54065063-6
- Kim , M. , Lee , J. , Kee , J. , and Chang , J. Hyundai Full Scale Aero-acoustic Wind Tunnel SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0629 2001 10.4271/2001-01-0629
- Oettle , N. , Sims-Williams , D. , Dominy , R. , Darlington , C. et al. The Effects of Unsteady On-Road Flow Conditions on Cabin Noise: Spectral and Geometric Dependence SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 4 1 120 130 2011 10.4271/2011-01-0159
- Ozono S , Nishi A. and Myaghi H. Turbulence generated by a wind tunnel of multi-fan type in uniformly active and quasi-grid modes Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 94 4 225 240 April 2006
- Reigel M. , Wiedemann J. and Helfer M. The Effect of Turbulence on In-Cabin Wind Noise - a Comparison of Road and Wind-Tunnel Results MIRA Conference UK 2006
- Vino , G. , Watkins , S. , and Mousley , P. The Passenger Vehicle Wake Under the Influence of Upstream Turbulence SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0650 2003 10.4271/2003-01-0650
- Watkins S , Riegel M and Wiedemann J. The Effect of Turbulence on Wind Noise invited paper, 4 th International Stuttgart Symposium, FKFS/Stuttgart University, 20-22 nd February 2001 in Automotive & Engine Technology Expert-Verlag 3-8169-1981-2
- Watkins , S. and Saunders , J. A Review of the Wind Conditions Experienced by a Moving Vehicle SAE Technical Paper 981182 1998 10.4271/981182
- Watkins , S. and Cooper , K. The Unsteady Wind Environment of Road Vehicles, Part Two: Effects on Vehicle Development and Simulation of Turbulence SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1237 2007 10.4271/2007-01-1237
- Saunders , J. and Wordley , S. A Review of Measurement of Ambient Turbulence with Respect to Ground Vehicles SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-1028 2006 10.4271/2006-01-1028
- von Karman , T. Progress in the statistical theory of turbulence Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) 34 530 9 1948