This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Experimental Investigation of Light-Medium Load Operating Sensitivity in a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Light-Duty Diesel Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 08, 2013 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The light-medium load operating range (4-7 bar net IMEP) presents many challenges for advanced low temperature combustion strategies utilizing low cetane fuels (specifically, 87-octane gasoline) in light-duty, high-speed engines. The overly lean overall air-fuel ratio (Φ≺0.4) sometimes requires unrealistically high inlet temperatures and/or high inlet boost conditions to initiate autoignition at engine speeds in excess of 1500 RPM. The objective of this work is to identify and quantify the effects of variation in input parameters on overall engine operation. Input parameters including inlet temperature, inlet pressure, injection timing/duration, injection pressure, and engine speed were varied in a ~0.5L single-cylinder engine based on a production General Motors 1.9L 4-cylinder high-speed diesel engine.
With constraints of combustion efficiency, noise level (pressure rise rate) and emissions, engine operation sensitivity due to changes in inlet temperature between 50-90C was first examined for fixed fueling rates. This experiment was then repeated at different inlet pressures and engine speeds. Finally, constant load experiments were performed in which perturbations in injection strategies (timing, duration, and pressure) were executed to assess overall system sensitivity. These experiments revealed primary and secondary effects with respect to changes in engine operation. In addition, an assessment of combustion robustness was made as well.
Based on the results, we conclude that input parameters can be effectively manipulated to maintain low NOx emissions ≺0.6 g/kg-fuel with good combustion stability (COV of IMEP ≺3%) over a wide inlet temperature range. Further optimization (with respect to combustion efficiency and CO/UHC emissions) was realized with additional adjustment of these input parameters. Interestingly, gross ISFC remained relatively unaffected by changes in input parameters (185-190 g/kWh). This last observation leads to the assessment that GCI combustion can provide robust, high-fuel-efficiency, low-emissions light-medium load operation in a light-duty engine application.
- Paul Loeper - Univ. of Wisconsin Madison
- Youngchul Ra - Univ. of Wisconsin Madison
- Cory Adams - Univ. of Wisconsin Madison
- David E. Foster - Univ. of Wisconsin Madison
- Jaal Ghandhi - Univ. of Wisconsin Madison
- Michael Andrie - Univ. of Wisconsin Madison
- Roger Krieger - Univ. of Wisconsin Madison
- Russ Durrett - General Motors Company
CitationLoeper, P., Ra, Y., Adams, C., Foster, D. et al., "Experimental Investigation of Light-Medium Load Operating Sensitivity in a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Light-Duty Diesel Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0896, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-01-0896.
- Heywood, J.B., 1988, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, Inc., United States of America.
- Neely, G., Sasaki, S., Huang, Y., Leet, J. et al., “New Diesel Emission Control Strategy to Meet US Tier 2 Emissions Regulations,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1091, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-1091.
- Onishi, S., Jo, S., Shoda, K., Jo, P. et al., “Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC) - A New Combustion Process for Internal Combustion Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 790501, 1979, doi: 10.4271/790501.
- Najt, P. and Foster, D., “Compression-Ignited Homogeneous Charge Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 830264, 1983, doi: 10.4271/830264.
- Christensen, M., Johansson, B., Amnéus, P., and Mauss, F., “Supercharged Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition,” SAE Technical Paper 980787, 1998, doi: 10.4271/980787.
- Olsson, J., Tunestål, P., Johansson, B., Fiveland, S. et al., “Compression Ratio Influence on Maximum Load of a Natural Gas Fueled HCCI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0111, 2002, doi:10.4271/2002-01-0111.
- Akihama, K., Takatori, Y., Inagaki, K., Sasaki, S. et al., “Mechanism of the Smokeless Rich Diesel Combustion by Reducing Temperature,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0655, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-0655.
- Shimazaki, N., Tsurushima, T., and Nishimura, T., “Dual Mode Combustion Concept With Premixed Diesel Combustion by Direct Injection Near Top Dead Center,” SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0742, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-0742.
- Minato, A., Tanaka, T., and Nishimura, T., “Investigation of Premixed Lean Diesel Combustion with Ultra High Pressure Injection,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0914, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-0914.
- Okude, K., Mori, K., Shiino, S., and Moriya, T., “Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) Combustion for Simultaneous Reduction of NOx and Soot in Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1907, 2004, doi:10.4271/2004-01-1907.
- Kimura, S., Aoki, O., Ogawa, H., Muranaka, S. et al., “New Combustion Concept for Ultra-Clean and High-Efficiency Small DI Diesel Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3681, 1999, doi:10.4271/1999-01-3681.
- Tsujimura, T., Oguma, M., and Goto, S., “A Study of Fuel Auto-ignitability on Premixed Compression Ignition Characteristics,” SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-0062, 2008, doi:10.4271/2008-01-0062.
- Ra, Y., Loeper, P., Reitz, R., Andrie, M. et al., “Study of High Speed Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) Engine Operation in the LTC Regime,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1):1412-1430, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-1182.
- Dec, J., Yang, Y., and Dronniou, N., “Boosted HCCI - Controlling Pressure-Rise Rates for Performance Improvements using Partial Fuel Stratification with Conventional Gasoline,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1):1169-1189, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-0897.
- Sjöberg, M. and Dec, J., “Smoothing HCCI Heat-Release Rates Using Partial Fuel Stratification with Two-Stage Ignition Fuels,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-0629, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-0629.
- Dec, J. and Yang, Y., “Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock and with Ultra-Low NOx Emissions - using Conventional Gasoline,” SAE Int. J. Engines 3(1):750-767, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-1086.
- Opat, R., 2006, “Investigation of Mixing and Temperature Effects on UHC/CO Emissions for Highly Dilute Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine,” Masters Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
- Koci, C., Ra, Y., Krieger, R., Andrie, M. et al., “Multiple-Event Fuel Injection Investigations in a Highly-Dilute Diesel Low Temperature Combustion Regime,” SAE Int. J. Engines 2(1):837-857, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-0925.
- Dronniou, N., Lejeune, M., Balloul, I., and Higelin, P., “Combination of High EGR Rates and Multiple Injection Strategies to Reduce Pollutant Emissions,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-3726, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-3726.
- Chiang, C. and Stefanopoulou, A., 2004, “Steady State Multiplicity and Stability of Thermal Equilibria in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines.” 43rd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control
- Kalghatgi, K., Hildingsson, L., Johansson, B., 2009, “Low NOx and Low Smoke Operation of a Diesel Engine Using Gasoline-like Fuels,” ICES2009-76034, American Society of Mechanical Engineers.