This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Microfluidic Simulation of Diesel Exhaust Gas and Soot Oxidation in Diesel Particulate Filter
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 25, 2013 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Particulate matter (PM) including soot in diesel exhaust gas is a serious atmospheric pollutant, and stricter exhaust emission standards are being set in many countries. As one of the key technologies, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) for PM trap in the after-treatment of the exhaust gas has been developed. Typically, the inlet size of filter monolith is about 2 mm, and the thickness of the filter wall is only 0.2 mm, where soot particles are removed. It is impossible to observe the small-scale phenomena inside the filter, experimentally. Then, in the present study, we conducted microfluidic simulation with soot oxidation.
Here, a real cordierite filter was used in the simulation. The inner structure of the filter was scanned by a 3D X-ray CT Computed Tomography) technique. The advantage is that it is non-intrusive system, and it has a high spatial resolution in the micrometer. By conducting tomography-assisted simulation, we obtained local velocity and pressure distributions of the complex microfluidics in the filter, which is hardly obtained by measurements. Especially, the conjugate simulation of gas-solid flow was presented. That is, to consider the heat transfer to the solid wall of the filter substrate, the equation of heat conduction was solved, simultaneously. Based on the temperature change and reaction rate in DPF, the conditions for the after-treatment were discussed.
CitationYamamoto, K. and Hanaki, Y., "Microfluidic Simulation of Diesel Exhaust Gas and Soot Oxidation in Diesel Particulate Filter," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0009, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-01-0009.
- Yezerets, A., Currier, N. W., Kim, D.H., Eadler, H.A., Epling, W.S., Peden, C.H.F., “Differential Kinetic Analysis of Diesel Particulate Matter (Soot) Oxidation by Oxygen Using a Step-Response Technique,” Applied Catalysis B 61 (2005) 120-129.
- Kittelson, D.B., “Engines and Nanoparticles: A Review,” Journal of Aerosol Science 29 (1998), 575-588.
- Johnson, T., “Review of Diesel Emissions and Control,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 3(1):16-29, 2010, doi: 10.4271/2010-01-0301.
- Kennedy, I. M., “The Health Effects of Combustion-Generated Aerosols”, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31 (2007) 2757-2770.
- Tzamkiozis, T., Ntziachristos, L., Samaras, Z., “Diesel Passenger Car PM Emissions: From Euro 1 to Euro 4 with Particle Filter,” Atmospheric Environment 44 (2010), 909-916.
- Koltsakis, G.C., Stamatelos, A.M., “Catalytic Automotive Exhaust After-Treatment,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 23 (1997) 1-39.
- Adler, J., “Ceramic Diesel Particulate Filters,” International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology 2 (2005), 429-439.
- Clerc, J.C., “Catalytic Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment,” Applied Catalysis B 10 (1996) 99-115.
- Konstandopoulos, A., Kostoglou, M., Skaperdas, E., Papaioannou, E. et al., “Fundamental Studies of Diesel Particulate Filters: Transient Loading, Regeneration and Aging,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1016, 2000, doi: 10.4271/2000-01-1016.
- Wirojsakunchai, E., Schroeder, E., Kolodziej, C., Foster, D. et al., “Detailed Diesel Exhaust Particulate Characterization and Real-Time DPF Filtration Efficiency Measurements During PM Filling Process,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0320, 2007, doi: 10.4271/2007-01-0320.
- Stamatelos, A.M., “A Review of the Effect of Particulate Traps on the Efficiency of Vehicle Diesel Engines,” Energy Conversion and Management, Vol.38(1) (1997) 83-99.
- Cooper, B.J., Jung, H.J., and Toss, J.E. (1990), US Patent, 4902487.
- Hawker, P. (1995) “Diesel emission control technology,” Platinum Metals Rev., Vol. 39, pp.2-8.
- Chen S., and Doolen, G.D., “Lattice Boltzmann Method for Fluid Flows,” Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 30, pp.329-364, 1998.
- Cancelliere, A., Chang, C., Foti, E., Rothman, D.H., Succi, S., “The Permeability of a Random Medium: Comparison of Simulation with Theory”, Phys. Fluids A, Vol.2, pp.2085-2088, 1990.
- Inamuro, T., Yoshino, M., Ogino, F., “Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Flows in a Three-dimensional Porous Structure.”, Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, Vol.29, pp.737-748, 1999.
- Bernsdorf, J., Brenner, G., Durst, F., “Numerical Analysis of the Pressure Drop in Porous Media Flow with the Lattice Boltzmann (BGK) Automata”, Comput. Phys. Commun., Vol.129, pp.247-255, 2000.
- Yamamoto, K., Oohori, S., Yamashita, H., Daido, S., “Simulation on Soot Deposition and Combustion in Diesel Particulate Filter,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol.32, pp.1965-1972, 2009.
- Yamamoto, K., Satake, S., Yamashita, H., Takada, N., Misawa, M., “Fluid Simulation and X-ray CT Images for Soot Deposition in a Diesel Filter”, the European Physical Journal, Vol.171, pp.205-212, 2009.
- Yamamoto, K., Nakamura, M., Yane, H., Yamashita, H., “Simulation on Catalytic Reaction in Diesel Particulate Filter,” Catalysis Today, Vol.153, pp.118-124, 2010.
- Yamamoto, K., Yamauchi, K., Takada, N., Misawa, M., Furutani, H., Shinozaki, O., “Lattice Boltzmann Simulation on Continuously Regenerating Diesel Filter,” Philosophical Transactions A (The Royal Society, London), Vol.369, 2584-2591, 2011.
- Yamamoto, K., He, X., and Doolen, G.D. “Simulation of Combustion Field with Lattice Boltzmann Method,” Journal of Statistical Physics, Vol. 107(1/2), pp.367-383, 2002.
- Yamamoto, K., “LB simulation on combustion with turbulence,” International Journal of Modern Physics B, Vol. 17(1/2), pp.197-200, 2003.
- Yamamoto, K., He, X., and Doolen, G.D., “Combustion Simulation Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method,” JSME International Journal, Series B, Vol. 47(2), pp.403-409, 2004.
- Bird, R.B., Stewart, W.E. and Lightfoot, E.N., Transport Phenomena, Wiley, New York, 1960.
- Yamamoto, K., Nakamura, M., “Conjugate Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer in Diesel Particulate Filter,” Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics (PCFD), Vol.12, No.4, 286-292, 2012.
- Lee, K.B., Thring, M.W., and Beer. J.M., “On the Rate of Combustion of Soot in a Laminar Soot Flame,”, Comb. Flame, Vol. 6, pp.137-145, 1962.
- He, X., Chen, S., and Doolen, G.D., “A Novel Thermal Model for the Lattice Boltzmann Method in Incompressible Limit,” J. Comp. Phys., Vol. 146, No. 1, pp.282-300, 1998.
- Inamuro, T., Yoshino, M., and Ogino, F., “Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Flows in a Three-Dimensional Porous Structure,” Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids, Vol. 29, pp.737-748, 1999.
- He, X., and Luo, Li-Shi, “Lattice Boltzmann Model for the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equation,” Journal of Statistical Physics, 88(3/4), pp.927-944, 1997.
- Pattas, K., Stamatelos, A., Kougianos, K., Koltsakis, G. et al., “Trap Protection by Limiting A/F Ratio During Regeneration,” SAE Technical Paper 950366, 1995, doi: 10.4271/950366.
- Tsuneyoshi, K., Takagi, O., and Yamamoto, K., “Effects of Washcoat on Initial PM Filtration Efficiency and Pressure Drop in SiC DPF,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0817, 2011, doi: 10.4271/2011-01-0817.
- Yamamoto, K., Yamauchi, K., “Numerical Simulation of Continuously Regenerating Diesel Particulate Filter,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol.34, pp. 3083-3090, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.proci.2012.06.117.