This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Design Details of the Compression Ignition Rotating Liner Engine. Reducing Piston Assembly Friction and Ring/Liner Wear in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 24, 2012 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The Rotating Liner Engine (RLE) is an engine design concept where the cylinder liner rotates in order to reduce piston assembly friction and liner/ring wear. The reduction is achieved by the elimination of the mixed and boundary lubrication regimes that occur near TDC. Prior engines for aircraft developed during WW2 with partly rotating liners (Sleeve Valve Engines or SVE) have exhibited reduction of bore wear by factor of 10 for high BMEP operation, which supports the elimination of mixed lubrication near the TDC area via liner rotation. Our prior research on rotating liner engines experimentally proved that the boundary/mixed components near TDC are indeed eliminated, and a high friction reduction was quantified compared to a baseline engine. The added friction required to rotate the liner is hydrodynamic via a modest sliding speed, and is thus much smaller than the mixed and boundary friction that is eliminated. The magnitude of the friction reduction, especially for cases of high BMEP and/or low piston speeds, can be expected to be very high compared to conventional optimization approaches.
The RLE applications are to conventional truck engines and downsized engines. For the case of a conventional engine, the fuel economy gain at full load is about 3.5%, but the overall fuel consumption benefit through the load cycle is estimated in the 7-10% range (with the larger benefit for high EGR engines). The efficiency benefit for downsized engines is expected to be lower, due to their expected increased load factor, and the consequent reduced importance of friction. However, downsized engines will likely suffer from accelerated wear, and the RLE characteristic of reduced bore and ring wear can be of great value.
In this paper, we present the design details of a Rotating Liner Engine (RLE) conversion of a 3.9L Cummins B-Series engine. The design is such that the original bore size is maintained, and all cylinders can be converted, while the part count is reduced compared to a prior design proposal. A semi-external driving mechanism is proposed, such that existing engines can be readily converted without need to modify castings. The main technological challenge of the RLE is the face seal, which needs to contain the combustion gas at very high pressure, yet exhibit very low friction and wear. In this paper, we present the modeling, which indicates that a 172 bar (2,500 psi) peak cylinder pressure can be contained without metallic contact, and with 8-22 Watts viscous friction for a range of liner speeds of 300-600 rpm. Our model includes factors such as gas loading, mechanical and thermal distortions, hydrodynamic/squeeze film pressure, and hydrostatic pressure.
Furthermore, a review of recent literature on engine friction is presented, which supports the developer's expectation that the RLE will give very favorable and long-lasting friction reductions compared to current techniques such as plateau honing and optimized piston ring profiles.
|Journal Article||Development and Optimization of the Ford 3.5L V6 EcoBoost Combustion System|
|Technical Paper||Friction Reduction - the Engine's Mechanical Contribution to Saving Fuel|
CitationDardalis, D., Matthews, R., and Lebeck, A., "Design Details of the Compression Ignition Rotating Liner Engine. Reducing Piston Assembly Friction and Ring/Liner Wear in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1963, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-1963.
- Bishop, I. “Effect of Design Variables on Friction and Economy,” SAE Technical Paper 640807 1964 10.4271/640807
- Borman, G.L. Ragland, K.W. 1998 Combustion Engineering, Chapter 12 McGraw-Hill Boston
- Brown, A. et al. 2010 Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles The National Academies Press Washington, DC
- Brown, D.T. Eckert, B.O. “The Rotating Piston More Than 50 Years On” Sen W 57ste Jaargang Nr6 http://www.knvts.nl/S&W
- Chen, S. Flynn, P. “Development of a Single Cylinder Compression Ignition Research Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 650733 1965 10.4271/650733
- Chen, H. Liao, K. Tian, T. “A Numerical and Experimental Study of Twin-land Oil Control Ring Friction in Internal Combustion Engines Part 2,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1321 2012 10.4271/2012-01-1321
- Comfort, A. “An Introduction to Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Frictional Losses And Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy - Part I,” SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3225 2003 10.4271/2003-01-3225
- Dardalis, D. 2003 “A Unique Hydrodynamic Face Seal for the Rotating Liner Engine, and the Rotating Liner Engine Face Seal Transient Code” Ph.D. Dissertation UT Austin
- Dardalis, D. Matthews, R. Kiehne, T. Kim, M. “Improving Heavy-Duty Engine Efficiency and Durability: The Rotating Liner Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1653 2005 10.4271/2005-01-1653
- De Petris, C. Giglio, V. Police, G. “Some Insights on Mechanisms of Oil Consumption,” SAE Technical Paper 961216 1996 10.4271/961216
- Furuhama, S. Takiguchi, M. Tomizawa, K. “Effect of Piston and Piston Ring Designs on the Piston Friction Forces in Diesel Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 810977 1981 10.4271/810977
- Gardner, T. Henein, N. “Compression Ratio Optimization in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine: A Mathematical Model,” SAE Technical Paper 880427 1988 10.4271/880427
- Hamrock, J.B. 1994 Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication McGraw-Hill, Inc.
- Hoshi, M. Baba, Y. Furuhama, S. 1989 “A Study of Piston Friction Force in an Internal Combustion Engine” Tribology Transactions 32 453 460
- Levinson, I. J. 1978 Machine Design Reston Publishing Company, Inc.
- Kim, M. Dardalis, D. Matthews, R. Kiehne, T. “Engine Friction Reduction Through Liner Rotation,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1652 2005 10.4271/2005-01-1652
- Kouremenos, D. Rakopoulos, C. Hountalas, D. Zannis, T. “Development of a Detailed Friction Model to Predict Mechanical Losses at Elevated Maximum Combustion Pressures,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0333 2001 10.4271/2001-01-0333
- Koszalka, G. Niewczas, A. Guzik, M. “Predicted and Actual Effect of Cylinder Liner Wear on the Blowby in a Truck Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-1717 2008 10.4271/2008-01-1717
- Ku, Y. Patterson, D. “Piston and Ring Friction by the Fixed Sleeve Method,” SAE Technical Paper 880571 1988 10.4271/880571
- Lawrence, J.B. 1988 “Effect of Cylinder Distortions and Piston Ring Design on Oil Consumption and Friction Losses in Automobile Engines” DE-AC02-90236
- Lebeck, A. O. Principles and Design of Mechanical Seals John Wiley & Sons August 1991
- Lebeck, A. O. Albor, G. 1999 “A Double Gas Seal with Coplanar Coaxial Rayleigh Pad Faces for Pump Sealing Applications” Proceedings, 15 th International Pump Users Symposium March 1999
- Lebeck, A.O. 1987 “Parallel Sliding Load Support in the Mixed Friction Regime” ASME J. of Tribology 109 196 205
- Lenz, V. 2000 Amzoil Inc., Private Communication
- Livanos, G. Kyrtatos, N. “A Model of the Friction Losses in Diesel Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-0888 2006 10.4271/2006-01-0888
- Marek, S. Henein, N. Bryzik, W. “Effect of Load and Other Parameters on Instantaneous Friction Torque in Reciprocating Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 910752 1991 10.4271/910752
- McGeehan, J. “A Literature Review of the Effects of Piston and Ring Friction and Lubricating Oil Viscosity on Fuel Economy,” SAE Technical Paper 780673 1978 10.4271/780673
- Mitsumoto, S. “Effect of Lubricant Viscosity, Additives and Ash Content on Durability in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 892050 1989 10.4271/892050
- Needelman, W. Madhavan, P. “Review of Lubricant Contamination and Diesel Engine Wear,” SAE Technical Paper 881827 1988 10.4271/881827
- Oxorn, K. Cooper, M. Van Dam, W. Richards, S. “Monitoring of Ring Face, Ring Side and Liner Wear in a Mack T-10 Test, using Surface Layer Activation,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-4002 2007 10.4271/2007-01-4002
- Patton, K. Nitschke, R. Heywood, J. “Development and Evaluation of a Friction Model for Spark-Ignition Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 890836 1989 10.4271/890836
- Polati, E. Vatavuk, J. Nava, M. “Performance of a Test Procedure for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines in Order to Mimic Accelerated Conditions of Liners Deterioration.,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-2898 2006 10.4271/2006-01-2898
- Raymond, J. R 2005 “Comparison of Sleeve Valve and Poppet-Valve Aircraft Piston Engines” Aircraft Engine Historical Society
- Rezeka, S. Henein, N. “A New Approach to Evaluate Instantaneous Friction and Its Components in Internal Combustion Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 840179 1984 10.4271/840179
- Ricardo, H.R. Hempson, J.G. 1968 The High Speed Internal Combustion Engine Fifth Blackie & Son Limited
- Reitz, R. 2000 personal communication with an engine research supervisor at the University of Wisconsin
- Roberts, C. Matthews, R. “Development and Application of an Improved Ring Pack Model for Hydrocarbon Emissions Studies,” SAE Technical Paper 961966 1996 10.4271/961966
- Roberts, C.E. 2005 personal communication with the Manager of Advanced Combustion and Emissions at Southwest Research Institute
- Rounds, F. “Carbon: Cause of Diesel Engine Wear?,” SAE Technical Paper 770829 1977 10.4271/770829
- Rosenberg, R. “General Friction Considerations for Engine Design,” SAE Technical Paper 821576 1982 10.4271/821576
- Sarlo, M.K. 2001 “Report on a Detroit Diesel Corporation Series 50 EGR cycle engine/oil test” Southwest Research Institute to Lubrizol and Chevron
- Setright, L.J.K. 1975 Some Unusual Engines Mechanical Engineering Publications Ltd.
- Takakura, T. Ishikawa, Y. Ito, K. “The Wear Mechanism of Piston Rings and Cylinder Liners Under Cooled-EGR Condition and the Development of Surface Treatment Technology for Effective Wear Reduction,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1655 2005 10.4271/2005-01-1655
- Tian, T. Wong, V. Heywood, J. “A Piston Ring-Pack Film Thickness and Friction Model for Multigrade Oils and Rough Surfaces,” SAE Technical Paper 962032 1996 10.4271/962032
- Ting, L.L. 1980 “Lubricated Piston Rings and Cylinder Bore Wear,” Wear Control Handbook 609 665 ASME
- Uras, H. Patterson, D. “Measurement of Piston and Ring Assembly Friction Instantaneous IMEP Method,” SAE Technical Paper 830416 1983 10.4271/830416
- Werner, M. Merkle, A. Graf, S. Holzmüller, R. et al. “Calculation of the Piston Assembly Friction: Classification, Validation and Interpretation,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1323 2012 10.4271/2012-01-1323