Reduction of Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust Particle Number and Mass at Low Exhaust Temperature Driving by the DOC and the SCR

Published September 10, 2012 by SAE International in United States
Reduction of Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust Particle Number and Mass at Low Exhaust Temperature Driving by the DOC and the SCR
Citation: Karjalainen, P., Ronkko, T., Lahde, T., Rostedt, A. et al., "Reduction of Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust Particle Number and Mass at Low Exhaust Temperature Driving by the DOC and the SCR," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 5(3):1114-1122, 2012,
Language: English


  1. Wehner, B.; Birmili, W.; Gnauk, T.; Wiedensohler, A. Particle number size distributions in a street canyon and their transformation into the urban-air background: Measurements and a simple model study. Atmospheric Environment 2002, 36, 2215-2223.
  2. Ketzel, M.; Wåhlin, P.; Berkowicz, R.; Palmgren, F. Particle and trace gas emission factors under urban driving conditions in Copenhagen based on street and roof-level observations. Atmospheric Environment 2003, 37, 2735-2749.
  3. Longley, I.; Gallagher, M.; Dorsey, J.; Flynn, M.; Allan, J.; Alfarra, M.; Inglis, D. A case study of aerosol (4.6 nm < Dp < 10 μm) number and mass size distribution measurements in a busy street canyon in Manchester, UK. Atmospheric Environment 2003, 37, 1563-1571.
  4. Pirjola, L.; Paasonen, P.; Pfeiffer, D.; Hussein, T.; Hämeri, K.; Koskentalo, T.; Virtanen, A.; Rönkkö, T.; Keskinen, J.; Pakkanen, T. Dispersion of particles and trace gases nearby a city highway: mobile laboratory measurements in Finland, Atmospheric Environment 2006, 40, 867-879.
  5. Kittelson, D., Johnson, J., Watts, W., Wei, Q. et al., “Diesel Aerosol Sampling in the Atmosphere,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-2212, 2000, doi:10.4271/2000-01-2212.
  6. Dockery, D.; Pope, A.; Xu, X.; Spengler, J.; Ware, J.; Fay, M.; Ferris, B.; Speizer, F. An Association between Air Pollution and Mortality in Six U.S. Cities. The New England Journal of Medicine 1993, 329, 1753-1759.
  7. Kittelson, D.B. Engines and nanoparticles: a review, Journal of Aerosol Science 1998, 29, 5-6, 575-588.
  8. Rönkkö, T.; Virtanen, A.; Kannosto, J.; Keskinen, J.; Lappi, M.; Pirjola, L. Nucleation mode particles with a nonvolatile core in the exhaust of a heavy duty diesel vehicle. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2007, 41, 6384-6389.
  9. Lähde, T.; Rönkkö, T.; Virtanen, A.; Schuck, T. J.; Pirjola, L.; Hämeri, K.; Kulmala, M.; Arnold, F.; Rothe, D.; Keskinen, J. Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Exhaust Aerosol Particle and Ion Measurements. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009, 43, 163-168.
  10. Filippo, A. D.; Maricq, M. M. Diesel Nucleation Mode Particles: Semi-volatile or Solid? Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 7957-7962.
  11. Heikkilä, J.; Rönkkö, T.; Lähde, T.; Lemmetty, M.; Arffman, A.; Virtanen, A.; Keskinen, J.; Pirjola, L.; Rothe, D. Effect of open channel filter on particle emissions of modern diesel engine. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2009, 59 (10), 1148.
  12. Lähde, T.; Rönkkö, T.; Happonen, M.; Söderström, C., Virtanen, A.; Solla, A.; Kytö, M.; Rothe, D; Keskinen, J. Effect of Fuel Injection Pressure on a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Non-volatile Particle Emission. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011.
  13. Johnson, T. V. Review of diesel emissions and control, International Journal of Engine Research 2009, 10(5), 275-285.
  14. Thiruvengadam, A.; Besch, M.; Carder, D.; Oshinuga, A.; Gautam, M. Influence of Real-World Engine Load Conditions on Nanoparticle Emissions from a DPF and SCR Equipped Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012.
  15. Herner, J.; Hu, S.; Robertson, W.; Huai, T.; Chang, M.-C.; Rieger, P.; Ayala, A. Effect of Advanced Aftertreatment for PM and NOx Reduction on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Ultrafine Particle Emissions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 45, 2413-2419.
  16. Herner, J.; Hu, S.; Robertson, W.; Huai, T.; Collins, J.; Dwyer, H.; Ayala, A. Effect of Advanced Aftertreatment for PM and NOx Control on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009, 43, 5928-5933.
  17. Krahl, J.; Munack, A.; Grope, N.; Ruschel, Y.; Schröder, O.; Bünger, J. Biodiesel, Rapeseed Oil, Gas-To-Liquid, and a Premium Diesel Fuel in Heavy Duty Diesel Enginens: Endurance, Emissions and Health Effects. Clean 2007, 35(5), 417-426.
  18. Hu, S.; Herner, J.; Shafer, M.; Robertson, W.; Schauer, J.; Dwyer, H.; Collins, J.; Huai, T.; Ayala, A. Metals emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with advanced PM and NOx emission controls. Atmospheric Environment 2009. 43, 2950-2959.
  19. Lemmetty, M.; Vehkamäki, H.; Virtanen, A.; Kulmala, M.; Keskinen, J. Homogeneous ternary H2SO4-NH3-H2O nucleation and diesel exhaust: a classical approach. Aerosol and Air Quality Research 2007, 7, 489-499.
  20. Mikkanen, P., Moisio, M., Keskinen, J., Ristimäki, J. et al., “Sampling Method for Particle Measurements of Vehicle Exhaust,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0219, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-0219.
  21. Mathis, U.; Ristimäki, J.; Mohr, M.; Keskinen, J.; Ntziachristos, L.; Samaras, Z.; Mikkanen, P. Sampling Conditions for the Measurement of Nucleation Mode Particles in the Exhaust of a Diesel Vehicle, Aerosol Science and Technology 2004, 38, 1149-1160.
  22. Karjalainen, P., Heikkila, J., Ronkko, T., Keskinen, J. et al., “Effect of Exhaust Flow Conditions and External Cooling on the Performance of the Particle Oxidation Catalyst (POC),” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-2158, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-2158.
  23. Rönkkö, T.; Virtanen, A.; Vaaraslahti, K.; Keskinen, J.; Pirjola, L.; Lappi, M. Effect of dilution conditions and driving parameters on nucleation mode particles in diesel exhaust: laboratory and on-road study. Atmospheric Environment 2006, 40, 2893-2901.
  24. Keskinen, J.; Rönkkö, T. Can Real-World Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distribution be Reproduced in the Laboratory? A Critical Review. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2010, 60, 1245-1255.
  25. Rönkkö, T.; Arffman, A.; Lähde, T.; Karjalainen, P.; Heikkilä, J.; Pirjola, L.; Rothe, D. and Keskinen, J. (2011) Diesel exhaust nanoparticle volatility studies by a new thermodenuder with low solid nanoparticle losses, 15th ETH Conference on Combustion Generated Nanoparticles.
  26. Keskinen, J.; Pietarinen, K.; Lehtimäki, M. Electrical low pressure impactor. Journal of Aerosol Science 1992, 23, 4, 353-360.
  27. Marjamäki, M., Ntziachristos, L., Virtanen, A., Ristimäki, J. et al., “Electrical Filter Stage for the ELPI,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0055, 2002, doi:10.4271/2002-01-0055.
  28. Yli-Ojanperä, J., Kannosto, J.; Marjamäki, M.; Keskinen, J. Improving the Nanoparticle Resolution of the ELPI. Aerosol and Air Quality Research. 10, 360-366, 2010.
  29. Ng, N.L.; Herndon, S.C.; Trimborn, A.; Canagaratna, M.R.; Croteau, P.L.; Onasch, T.B.; Sueper, D.; Worsnop, D.R.; Zhang, Q.; Sun, Y.L. and Jayne, J.T. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) for Routine Monitoring of the Composition and Mass Concentrations of Ambient Aerosol, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 2011, 45, 770-784.
  30. Liu, P.S.K.; Deng, R.; Smith, K.A.; Williams, L.R.; Jayne, J.T.; Canagaratna, M.R.; Moore, K.; Onasch, T.B.; Worsnop, D.R. and Deshler, T. Transmission Efficiency of an Aerodynamic Focusing Lens System: Comparison of Model Calculations and Laboratory Measurements for the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 2007, 41, 721-733.
  31. Matthew, B. M.; Middlebrook, A. M., and Onasch, T. B. Collection Efficiencies in an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer as a Function of Particle Phase for Laboratory Generated Aerosols, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 884-898.
  32. Jayne, J. T.; Leard, D. C.; Zhang, X.; Davidovits, P.; Smith, K. A.; Kolb, C. E., and Worsnop, D. R. Development of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer for Size and Composition, Analysis of Submicron Particles, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 2000, 33, 49-70.
  33. Canagaratna, M. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Jimenez, J. L.; Allan, J. D.; Alfarra, M. R.; Zhang, Q.; Onasch, T. B.; Drewnick, F.; Coe, H., Middlebrook, A.; Delia, A.; Williams, L. R.; Trimborn, A. M.; Northway, M. J.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Kolb, C. E.: Davidovits, P., and Worsnop, D. R. Chemical and Microphysical Characterization of Ambient Aerosols with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Mass Spectrometry Reviews 2007, 26, 185-222.
  34. Petzold, A. and Schönlinner, M. Multi-angle absorption photometry - a new method for the measurement of aerosol light absorption and atmospheric black carbon. J. Aerosol Sci. 2004, 35, 421-441.
  35. Petzold, A.; Kramer, H. and Schönlinner, M. Continuous Measurement of Atmospheric Black Carbon Using a Multi-angle Absorption Photometer. Environ Sci & Pollut Res. 2002, 4, 78-82.

Cited By