This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Idle Operating Engine Condition for a GDI Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 16, 2012 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The increased limitations to both NOx and soot emissions have pushed engine researchers to rediscover gasoline engines. Among the many technologies and strategies, gasoline direct injection plays a key-role for improving fuel economy and engine performance. The paper aims to investigate an extremely complex task such as the idle operating engine condition when the engine runs at very low engine speeds and low engine loads and during the warm-up. Due to the low injection pressure and to the null contribution of the turbocharger, the engine condition is far from the standard points of investigation. Taking into account the warm-up engine condition, the analyses are performed with a temperature of the coolant of 50°C.
The paper reports part of a combined numerical and experimental synergic activity aiming at the understanding of the physics of spray/wall interaction within the combustion chamber and particular care is used for air/fuel mixing and the combustion process analyses. In order to properly describe the engine condition, different injection strategies are investigated. Late and early injection strategies are deeply analyzed and compared in terms of combustion stability and pollutant emissions.
UV-visible imaging and spectral measurements are carried out in real engine with wide optical accesses... Measurements are performed in the optically accessible combustion chamber realized by modifying a real engine. The cylinder head was modified in order to allow in the fourth cylinder the visualization of the fuel injection and the combustion process with high spatial and temporal resolution.
The 3D-CFD engine simulations are reproduced by means of the commercial code Star-CD. Due to the warm-up condition and the many physical sub-models a numerical methodology is implemented and particular care is used to boundaries conditions analyses. CFD analysis is used to find a possible explanation of the high cycle-to-cycle variability. The experimental and numerical comparisons, in terms fuel mixing and front flame propagation, give an explanation of the idle condition.
CitationMalaguti, S., D'Adamo, A., Cantore, G., Sementa, P. et al., "Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Idle Operating Engine Condition for a GDI Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1144, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-1144.
- Solomon, A.S. Anderson, R.W. Najt, P.M. Zhao, F. “Direct Fuel Injection for Gasoline Engines,” Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. Warrendale, PA 978-0-76800-536-3 1999
- Zhao, F. Harrington, D. L. Lai, M. “Automotive Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 25 5 October 1999 437 562
- Zhao, F. Harrington, D.L. Lai, M.-C. “Automotive Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines,” Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. Warrendale, PA 978-0-76800-882-1 2002
- Malaguti, S. Fontanesi, S. Severi, E. “Numerical Analysis of GDI Engine Cold-Start at Low Ambient Temperatures,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-2123 2010 10.4271/2010-01-2123
- Suh, E. Rutland, C. “Numerical Study of Fuel/Air Mixture Preparation in a GDI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3657 1999 10.4271/1999-01-3657
- Fan, L. Reitz, R. D. “Spray and combustion modeling in gasoline direct-injection engines” 2000 Atomization and Sprays 10 219 249 2000
- Sementa, P. Vaglieco, B. Catapano, F. “Non-Intrusive Investigation in a Small GDI Optical Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and Ethanol,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4 1 50 66 2011 10.4271/2011-01-0140
- Heywood, J.B. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals New York McGraw-Hill 1988
- Ladommatos, N. Zhao, H. “Engine Combustion Instrumentation and Diagnostics,” Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. Warrendale, PA 978-0-7680-0665-0 2001 10.4271/R-264
- Computational Dynamics “STAR-CD User Guide” 2010 London (UK)
- Computational Dynamics “STAR-CD Methodology” 2010 London (UK)
- Yakhot, V. Orszag, S.A. Thangam, S. Gatski, T.B. Speziale, C.G. “Development of turbulence models for shear flows by a double expansion technique” Phys. Fluids 1992
- Cantore, G. Fontanesi, S. Mattarelli, E. Bianchi, G. “A Methodology for In-Cylinder Flow Field Evaluation in a Low Stroke-to-Bore SI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-1119 2002 10.4271/2002-01-1119
- Versteeg, H. K. Malalasekera, W. “An introduction to computational fluid dynamics. The finite volume method” Longman 1995
- Bracco, F. “Modeling of Engine Sprays,” SAE Technical Paper 850394 1985 10.4271/850394
- Dombrowski, N. Johns, W. R. “The aerodynamic instability and disintegration of viscous liquid sheets” Chem. Eng. Sci. 18 203 1963
- Beal, J. C. Reitz, R. D. “Modeling spray atomization with the Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor Hybrid model” Atomization and Sprays 9 623 650 1999
- Patterson, M. Reitz, R. “Modeling the Effects of Fuel Spray Characteristics on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emission,” SAE Technical Paper 980131 1998 10.4271/980131
- Reitz, D. “Modeling Atomization Processes in High-Pressure Vaporizing Sprays” Atomization and Spray Technology 3 1987 309 337
- Taylor, G.I. “The instability of liquid surfaces when accelerated in a direction perpendicular to their planes” Bachelor, GK, The Scientific Papers of Sir Geoffery Ingram Taylor 1963 3 532 536 Cambridge University Press
- Gosman, A.D. Ioannides, S.I. 1983 “Aspects of computer simulation of liquid-fuelled combustors” AIAA, J. Energy 7 6 482 490
- O'Rourke, P.J. “Collective Drop Effects on Vaporizing Liquid Sprays” PhD Thesis University of Princeton 1981
- Bai, C. Gosman, A. “Development of Methodology for Spray Impingement Simulation,” SAE Technical Paper 950283 1995 10.4271/950283
- Bai, C. Gosman, A. “Mathematical Modelling of Wall Films Formed by Impinging Sprays,” SAE Technical Paper 960626 1996 10.4271/960626
- Sirignano, W.A. 1999 “Fluid Dynamics and Transport of Droplets and Sprays” Cambridge University Press New York
- Torres, D.J. O’Rourke, P.J. Amsden, A.A. 2003 ‘Efficient multicomponent fuel algorithm’ Combust. Theory Modelling 7 67
- Malaguti, S. Fontanesi, S. Cantore, G. “Numerical characterization of a new high-pressure multi-hole GDI injector” ILASS Europe 2010 Brno, Czech Republic September 2010
- Malaguti, S. Fontanesi, S. Vaglieco, B. Sementa, P. et al. “Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Idle Operating Engine Condition for a GDI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-24-0031 2011 10.4271/2011-24-0031
- Maricq, M. Podsiadlik, D. Brehob, D. Haghgooie, M. “Particulate Emissions from a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-1530 1999 10.4271/1999-01-1530
- Drake, M. Fansler, T. Solomon, A. Szekely, G. “Piston Fuel Films as a Source of Smoke and Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Wall-Controlled Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0547 2003 10.4271/2003-01-0547
- Gaydon, A.G. The Spectroscopy of Flames Chapman and Hall ltd. 1957