This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Combustion Behaviour and Emission Performance of Neat and Blended Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 16, 2012 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The combustion behaviour, the mechanisms of soot formation, and the emission performance of a mixture of polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (POMDME) oligomers with a number of oxymethylene units ranging from 3 to 5, both neat and blended at 12.5% and 50% levels with commercial diesel fuel have been investigated. The goals were a first evaluation of the POMDME impact on the diesel injector behaviour, on the combustion process as well as on the emission performance of a light duty engine. Then a brief screening on the capability to improve the NOx-PM trade-off using POMDME by means of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate increment was also assessed. Therefore, the experiments were carried out first using an injector test rig to control injection parameters, then in a transparent single-cylinder research engine with optical access for combustion visualization with spatially-resolved measurements of flame temperature and soot concentration, and finally in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine. Two operating conditions were chosen for the tests as representative of the most critical point for emission and noise optimization: engine speed of 1500 rpm and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) of 5 bar, and 2500 rpm and 8 bar BMEP. Results from the single-cylinder engine indicate that the presence of the POMDME affects essentially the process of soot oxidation and results in a significant increase of the oxidation rate. This effect is attributed to the presence of intramolecular oxygen in the fuel which is readily available in situ and to the higher flame temperatures. The tests with the multi-cylinder engine have demonstrated that with the neat POMDME and to a lesser extent also with the 50% blend it is possible a simultaneous optimization of NOx and PM emissions and also of the noise level to a limit that could not be reached with conventional diesel fuels. For the 10-12% blend that could be used in non-dedicated engines, the reduction of PM emission was about 40%, while with higher blends and EGR recalibration in dedicated vehicle fleets very low NOx exhaust emission can be reached.
CitationPellegrini, L., Marchionna, M., Patrini, R., Beatrice, C. et al., "Combustion Behaviour and Emission Performance of Neat and Blended Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1053, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-1053.
- Marchionna, M., and Sanfilippo, D., “High Quality Components for Clean Transportation Fuels”, Hydrocarb. Eng. 7(7):49-51, 2002
- Patrini, R., and Marchionna, M., “A process for the selective production of dialkylpolyformals”, European Patent EP 1 505 049 A1, July 18, 2000
- Burger, J., Siegert, M., Ströfer, E., and Hasse, H., “Poly(oxymethylene) Dimethyl Ethers as Components of Tailored Diesel Fuel: Properties, Synthesis and Purification Concepts”, Fuel 89:3315-3319, 2010
- Lumpp, B., Rothe, D., Pastötter, C., Lämmermann, R., and Jacob, E., “Oxymethylene Ethers as Diesel Fuel Additives of the Future”, MTZ 72(3):34-38, 2011
- Bertoli, C., Del Giacomo, N., and Beatrice, C., “Diesel Combustion Improvements by the Use of Oxygenated Synthetic Fuels,” SAE Technical Paper 972972, 1997, doi: 10.4271/972972.
- Beatrice, C., Bertoli, C., Del Giacomo, N., and Migliaccio, M., “Potentiality of Oxygenated Synthetic Fuel and Reformulated Fuel on Emissions from a Modern DI Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3595, 1999, doi:10.4271/1999-01-3595.
- Nabi, N., Kannan, D., Hustad, J. E., and Rahman, M. M., “Role of Oxygenated Fuel to reduce Diesel Emissions: a Review”, ICME09-TH-04, 2009
- Cheng, A. S., “Effect of Oxygenates Blended with Diesel Fuel on Particulate Matter Emissions from a Compression Ignition Engine”, Ph. D. thesis, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, 2002
- Ogawa, H., Nabi, N., Minami, M., Miyamoto, N. et al., “Ultra Low Emissions and High Performance Diesel Combustion with a Combination of High EGR, Three-Way Catalyst, and a Highly Oxygenated Fuel, Dimethoxy Methane (DMM),” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1819, 2000, doi:10.4271/2000-01-1819.
- Vertin, K., Ohi, J., Naegeli, D., Childress, K. et al., “Methylal and Methylal-Diesel Blended Fuels for Use in Compression-Ignition Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-1508, 1999, doi:10.4271/1999-01-1508.
- Longbao, Z., Hewu, W., Deming, J., and Zuohua, H., “Study of Performance and Combustion Characteristics of a DME-Fueled Light-Duty Direct-Injection Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3669, 1999, doi:10.4271/1999-01-3669.
- Sanfilippo, D., Patrini, R., and Marchionna, M., “Use of an Oxygenated Product as a Substitute of Gas Oil in Diesel Engines”, European Patent EP 1 422 285 A1, November 14, 2003
- Martini, N. and Schell, J. (Eds), Plant Oils as Fuel, Present State of Science and Future Development, Springer Verlag, p. 65, 1998.
- Sharp, C., Howell, S., and Jobe, J., “The Effect of Biodiesel Fuels on Transient Emissions from Modern Diesel Engines, Part I Regulated Emissions and Performance,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1967, 2000, doi:10.4271/2000-01-1967.
- Löfvenberg, U., “The BEST experiences with low blends in diesel and petrol fuels”, BEST (BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport) Delivrable n. D3.15, March 2010, http://www.best-europe.org/upload/BEST_documents/info_documents/Best%20reports%20etc/D3.15_The%20BEST%20experiences%20with%20low%20blends%20in%20diesel%20and%20petrol%20fuels.pdf
- IAV documentation, “EVI, Instrument for measurement of injection rate”. http://www.iav.com/us/1_engineering/powertrain_development/injection_systems/tools/evi.php
- Beatrice, C., Bertoli, C., Del Giacomo, N., Guido, C. et al., “In-cylinder Soot Evolution Analysis in a Transparent Research DI Diesel Engine Fed by Oxygenated Fuels,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-2851, 2002, doi:10.4271/2002-01-2851.
- Beatrice, C., Guido, C., “Benefits and drawbacks of compression ratio reduction in PCCI combustion application in an advanced LD diesel engine” 2008 Diesel Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference, August 4-7, 2008 Dearborn, Michigan; http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/deer_2008/session5/deer08_beatrice.pdf
- Dernotte, J., Hespel, C., Foucher, F., Huillé, S., Mounaïm-Rousselle, C., “Experimental study of the influence of fuel physical properties on the diesel injection process in non-vaporizing conditions”, 24th European Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Estoril, Portugal, September 2011
- Beatrice, C., Bertoli, C., Cirillo, N. C., di Stasio, S., Del Giacomo, N., “Two-colour pyrometry measurements of soot loading in a diesel engine burning fuels of varying quality”. Combustion Science and Technology Vol. 110-111, pp.321-339, 1995. Preview doi: 10.1080/00102209508951929.
- Priesching, P., Pavlovic, Z., Ertl, P., Giacomo, N. et al., “Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Bio-Diesel Blends on the Mixture Formation, Combustion and Emission Behavior of a Modern HSDI Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-24-0041, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-24-0041.
- Beatrice, C., Bertoli, C., Del Giacomo, N., and Migliaccio, M., “Experimental Investigation on High-Quality Diesel Fuels Effects in a Light Duty CR Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1911, 2000, doi:10.4271/2000-01-1911.
- Soltic, P., Edenhauser, D., Thurnheer, T., Schreiber, D., Sankowski, A., “Experimental investigation of mineral diesel fuel, GTL fuel, RME and neat soybean and rapeseed oil combustion in a heavy duty on-road engine with exhaust gas aftertreatment” 2009, Fuel 88 (2009) 1-8.
- Beatrice, C., Guido, C., Di Iorio, S. “Experimental analysis of alternative fuel impact on a new “torque-controlled” light-duty diesel engine for passenger cars”. Fuel 89 (2010) 3278-3286. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2010.03.054.
- Beatrice, C., Guido, C., Di Iorio, S., Napoletano, P., Del Giacomo, N.. “Assessment of biodiesel blending detection capability of the on-board diagnostic of the last generation automotive diesel engines”. Fuel 90 (2011) 2039-2044. DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2011.01.013.
- Ruggero, A., Tonetti, M., Gioannini, A., Pelassa, M., “Combustion Technologies to meet Euro 6 Emissions Standards on a Diesel D-segment Passenger Car”. Proceedings of the SIA International Conference : Le Moteur Diesel / Diesel Engine, Rouen - INSA Rouen (France), 28 & 29 May 2008.