This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 16, 2012 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO₂ oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
A test procedure developed by Hutton et al., was modified to improve the ability to model the experimental data and provide additional insight into passive oxidized PM in a CPF. A test protocol and plan was developed to allow PM oxidation rates by NO₂ to be determined from engine test cell data. An experimental matrix consisting of CPF inlet temperatures from 250 to 450°C with varying NOX/PM from 25 to 583 and NO₂/PM ratios from 5 to 240 was used.
SME biodiesel was volumetrically blended with ULSD in 10% (B10) and 20% (B20) portions. This blended fuel was then used to evaluate the effect of biodiesel on passive oxidation rates. Four tests were performed with B10 and four tests with B20. Gathering data to determine the effect of fuel type (ULSD and biodiesel blends) on PM oxidation is the primary goal. Data from fifteen tests completed with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and one additional engine platform is used to compare to results from SME biodiesel tests.
The experimental reaction rates during passive oxidation varied based upon the average CPF temperature, NO₂ concentrations, and the NOX/PM ratios for each engine and with all fuels. The data collected is directly comparable to ULSD data from prior experimental tests, but requires a high fidelity model that includes NO₂ and thermal oxidation mechanisms and back diffusion to determine the details of the PM oxidation process.
|Technical Paper||Performance of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts for European Bus Applications|
|Technical Paper||Measurement of Soot in Diesel Engine Lubricating Oil|
|Technical Paper||Reactor System with Diesel Injection Capability for DOC Evaluations|
CitationShiel, K., Naber, J., Johnson, J., and Hutton, C., "Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0837, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-0837.
- Hutton, C. Johnson, J. Naber, J. Keith, J. “Procedure Development and Experimental Study of Passive Particulate Matter Oxidation in a Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Filter,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0851 2012 10.4271/2012-01-0851
- Hutton, C. “An Experimental Investigation Into The Passive Oxidation Of Particulate Matter In A Catalyzed Particulate Filter” Master's Thesis Michigan Technological University 2010
- Williams, A. McCormick, R. Hayes, R. Ireland, J. et al. “Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3280 2006 10.4271/2006-01-3280
- Morcos, M. Ayyappan, P. Harris, T. “Characterization of DPF Ash for Development of DPF Regeneration Control and Ash Cleaning Requirements,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1248 2011 10.4271/2011-01-1248
- Chilumukuru, K. P. “An Experimental Study of Particulate Thermal Oxidation in a Catalyzed Filter during Active Regeneration” Master's Thesis Michigan Technological University 2008
- Lakkireddy, V. R. “The Effect of an Advanced Oxidation Catalytic Converter and a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on the Emissions from a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine” Master's Thesis Michigan Technological University 2005
- Austin, G. “Effects of Biodiesel Blends on Particulate Matter Oxidation in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter during Active Regeneration” Master's Thesis Michigan Technological University 2010
- Austin, G. Naber, J. Johnson, J. Hutton, C. “Effects of Biodiesel Blends on Particulate Matter Oxidation in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter during Active Regeneration,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 3 1 194 218 2010 10.4271/2010-01-0557
- Burtscher, H. Baltensperger, U. Bukowiecki, N. Cohn, P. Huglin, C. Mohr, M. Matter, U. Nyeki, S. Schmatloch, V. Steit, N. Weingartner, E. “Separation of volatile and non-volatile aerosol fractions by thermodesorption: instrumental development and applications” Journal of Aerosol Science 32 4 427 442 2001
- Koltsakis, G. Samaras, Z. Karvountzis-Kontakiotis, A. Zacharopoulou, T. et al. “Implications of Engine Start-Stop on After-Treatment Operation,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4 1 1571 1585 2011 10.4271/2011-01-1243
- Northrop, W. Assanis, D. Bohac, S. “Evaluation of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Conversion of Hydrocarbons and Particulate Matter from Premixed Low Temperature Combustion of Biodiesel,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4 1 1431 1444 2011 10.4271/2011-01-1186
- Maricq, M. Giuliano, J. Szente, J. Tennison, P. “Effects of B20 versus ULSD Fuel on Diesel Engine PM Emissions and Aftertreatment Performance,” SAE Int. J. Engines 3 1 581 596 2010 10.4271/2010-01-0790
- Strzelec, A. “Effect of Biodiesel Blending on the Speciation of Soluble Organic Fraction from a Light Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Video 10376 Nov. 2011
- Vertin, K. He, S. Heibel, A. “Impacts of B20 Biodiesel on Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filter Performance,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-2736 2009 10.4271/2009-01-2736
- Williams, A. McCormick, R. Luecke, J. Brezny, R. et al. “Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 4 1 110 124 2011 10.4271/2011-01-1136
- Wenzel, S. Wahiduzzaman, S. “Analytical Study of Effectiveness of a Degreened and Aged DOC as an Oxidation Device for NO Under Variable Operating and Inlet Conditions,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-0908 2009 10.4271/2009-01-0908
- Katare, S. Patterson, J. Laing, P. “Aged DOC is a Net Consumer of NO2: Analyses of Vehicle, Engine-dynamometer and Reactor Data,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-3984 2007 10.4271/2007-01-3984
- Eckerle, W. Lyford-Pike, E. Stanton, D. LaPointe, L. et al. “Effects of Methyl Ester Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 1 1 102 118 2009 10.4271/2008-01-0078
- Pauli, E. Lepperhoff, G. Pischinger, F. “The Description of the Regeneration Behavior of Diesel Particulate Traps with the Aid of a Mathematical Model,” SAE Technical Paper 830180 1983 10.4271/830180