This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Further Evaluation of Scaling Methods for Rotorcraft Icing
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published June 13, 2011 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The paper will present experimental results from two recent icing tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The first test, conducted in February 2009, was to evaluate the current recommended scaling methods for fixed wing on representative rotor airfoils at fixed angle of attack. For this test, scaling was based on the modified Ruff method with scale velocity determined by constant Weber number and water film Weber number. Models were un-swept NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference model had a chord of 91.4 cm and scale model had a chord of 35.6 cm. Reference tests were conducted with velocity of 100 kt (52 m/s), droplet medium volume diameter (MVD) 195 μm, and stagnation-point freezing fractions of 0.3 and 0.5 at angle of attack of 5° and 7°. It was shown that good ice shape scaling was achieved with constant Weber number for NACA 0012 airfoils with angle of attack up to 7°. The second test, completed in May 2010, was primarily focused on obtaining transient and steady-state iced aerodynamics, ice accretion and shedding, and thermal icing validation data from an oscillating airfoil section over some selected ranges of icing conditions and blade assembly operational configurations. The model used was a 38.1-cm chord Sikorsky SC2110 airfoil section installed on an airfoil test apparatus with oscillating capability in the IRT. For two test conditions, size and condition scaling were performed. It was shown that good ice shape scaling was achieved for SC2110 airfoil at dynamic pitching motion. The data obtained will be applicable for future main rotor blade and tail rotor blade applications.
CitationTsao, J. and Kreeger, R., "Further Evaluation of Scaling Methods for Rotorcraft Icing," SAE Technical Paper 2011-38-0083, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-38-0083.
- Anderson, D. N. “Manual of Scaling Methods,” March 2004
- Anderson, D. N. Tsao, J. C. “Ice Shape Scaling for Aircraft in SLD Conditions,” September 2008
- SAE Aerospace Information Report “Rotor Blade Electrothermal Ice Protection Design Considerations,” SAE Standard AIR1667, Rev A September 2002
- Flemming, R. Britton, R. Bond, T. “Role of Wind Tunnels and Computer Codes in the Certification and Qualification of Rotorcraft for Flight in Forecast Icing,” NASA TM 106747 October 1994
- Tsao, J. C. Kreeger, R. E. “Evaluation of Scaling Methods for Rotorcraft Icing,” AHS Forum 65 May 27-29 2009 NASA/TM-2010-215801 March 2010
- Flemming, R. J. Lednicer, D. A. “High Speed Ice Accretion on rotorcraft Airfoils,” NASA Contractor Report 3910 August 1985
- Langmuir, I. Blodgett, K. B. “A Mathematical Investigation of Water Droplet Trajectories,” Army Air Forces Technical Report No. 5418 February 1946
- Messinger, B. L. “Equilibrium Temperture of an Unheated Icing Surface as a Function of Airspeed,” J. Aeron. Sci. 20 1 January 1953 29 42
- Tribus, Myron Young, G.B.W. Boelter, L.M.K. “Analysis of Heat Transfer Over a Small Cylinder in Icing Conditions on Mount Washington,” Trans. ASME 70 November 1948 971 976
- Ruff, G. A. “Analysis and Verification of the Icing Scaling Equations,” AEDC-TR-85-30 1 March 1986
- Charpin, F. Fasso, G. “Essais de givrage dans la grande soufflerie de Modane sur maquettes a echelle grandeur et echelle reduite,” L'Aeronautique et l'Astronautique 38 1972 23 31 “Icing Testing in the Large Modane Wind-Tunnel on Full-Scale and Reduced Scale Models,” NASA TM-75373 March 1979
- Feo, A. “Similarity of Water Film Weber Number and Film Thickness in Icing Scaling,” AE/TNO/4420/264/INTA/01 Institute Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial October 2001
- Olsen, W. Newton, J. “Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Existing Icing Scaling Laws,” NASA Technical Memorandum 1986
- Ide, Robert F. Oldenburg, John R. “Icing Cloud Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel,” AIAA-2001-0234 January 2001
- SigmaScan Pro, image-processing software, ver. 5.0 Systat Software, Inc. Point Richmond, CA