This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Aerodynamic Effects of Simulated Ice Accretion on a Generic Transport Model
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published June 13, 2011 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
An experimental research effort was begun to develop a database of airplane aerodynamic characteristics with simulated ice accretion over a large range of incidence and sideslip angles. Wind-tunnel testing was performed at the NASA Langley 12-ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel using a 3.5% scale model of the NASA Langley Generic Transport Model. Aerodynamic data were acquired from a six-component force and moment balance in static-model sweeps from α = -5 to 85 deg. and β = -45 to 45 deg. at a Reynolds number of 0.24x10⁶ and Mach number of 0.06. The 3.5% scale GTM was tested in both the clean configuration and with full-span artificial ice shapes attached to the leading edges of the wing, horizontal and vertical tail. Aerodynamic results for the clean airplane configuration compared favorably with similar experiments carried out on a 5.5% scale GTM. The addition of the large, glaze-horn-type ice shapes did result in an increase in airplane drag coefficient but had little effect on the lift and pitching moment. The lateral-directional characteristics showed mixed results with a small effect of the ice shapes observed in some cases. The flow visualization images revealed the presence and evolution of a spanwise-running vortex on the wing that was the dominant feature of the flowfield for both clean and iced configurations. The lack of ice-induced performance and flowfield effects observed in this effort was likely due to Reynolds number effects for the clean configuration. Estimates of full-scale baseline performance were included in this analysis to illustrate the potential icing effects.
CitationBroeren, A., Lee, S., Shah, G., and Murphy, P., "Aerodynamic Effects of Simulated Ice Accretion on a Generic Transport Model," SAE Technical Paper 2011-38-0065, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-38-0065.
- Totah, J., Krishnakumar, K., and Viken, S., “Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control-Stability, Maneuverability and Safe Landing in the Presence of Adverse Conditions,” NASA Aviation Safety Program Technical Plan, Apr. 2007.
- Reehorst, A.L., Addy, H.E.Jr., Colantonio, R.O., “Examination of Icing Induced Loss of Control and Its Mitigations,” AIAA Paper 2010-8140, Aug. 2010.
- Ratvasky, T.P. and Lee, S., “Current Knowledge of Icing Effects on Aircraft Control,” NASA White Paper, Dec. 2007.
- Foster, J.V., Cunningham, K., Fremaux, C.M., Shah, G.H., Stewart, E.C., Rivers, R.A., Wilborn, J.E., and Gato, W., “Dynamics Modeling and Simulation of Large Transport Airplanes in Upset Conditions,” AIAA Paper 2005-5933, Aug. 2005.
- Shah, G., Cunningham, K., Foster, J., Fremaux, C. et al., “Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Commercial Transport Aircraft Aerodynamics at Extreme Flight Conditions,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-2912, 2002, doi:10.4271/2002-01-2912.
- Shah, G.H., “Aerodynamic Effects and Modeling of Damage to Transport Aircraft,” AIAA Paper 2008-6203, Aug. 2008.
- Murch, A.M., and Foster, J.V., “Recent NASA Research on Aerodynamic Modeling of Post-Stall and Spin Dynamics of Large Transport Airplanes,” AIAA Paper 2007-0463, Jan. 2007.
- Owens, D.B., Brandon, J.M., Croom, M.A., Fremaux, C.M., Heim, E.H., and Vicroy, D.D., “Overview of Dynamic Test Techniques for Flight Dynamics Research as NASA LaRC,” AIAA Paper 2006-3146, Jun. 2006.
- Frink, N.T., Pirzadeh, S.Z., Atkins, H.L., Viken, S.A., and Morrison, J.H., “CFD Assessment of Aerodynamic Degradation of a Subsonic Transport Due to Airframe Damage.” AIAA Paper 2010-0500, Jan. 2010.
- Ratvasky, T.P., Ranaudo, R.J., Barnhart, B.P., Dickes, E.G., and Gingras, D.R., “Development and Utility of a Piloted Flight Simulator for Icing Effects Training,” AIAA Paper 2003-0022, Jan. 2003, also NASA TM-2003-212116, Apr. 2003.
- Papadakis, M., Gile-Laflin, B.E., Youssef, G.M., and Ratvasky, T.P., “Aerodynamic Scaling Experiments with Simulated Ice Accretions,” AIAA Paper 2001-0833, Jan. 2001.
- Gingras, D.R., Dickes, E.G., Ratvasky, T.P., and Barnhart, B.P., “Modeling of In-Flight Icing Effects for Pilot Training,” AIAA Paper 2002-4605, Aug. 2002.
- Ratvasky, T.P., Ranaudo, R.J., Blankenship, K.S., and Lee, S., “Demonstration of an Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device,” AIAA 2006-0677, Jan. 2006, also NASA TM-2006-214233, May 2006.
- Gingras, D.R., Barnhart, B., Ranaudo, R., Martos, B., Ratvasky, T.P., and Morelli, E., “Development and Implementation of a Model-Driven Envelope Protection System for In-Flight Ice Contamination,” AIAA Paper 2010-8141, Aug. 2010.
- Ranaudo, R., Martos, B., Norton, B., Gingras, D.R., Barnhart, B., Ratvasky, T.P., and Morelli, E., “Piloted Simulation to Evaluate the Utility of a Real-Time Envelope Protection System for Mitigating In-Flight Icing Hazards,” AIAA Paper 2010-7987, Aug. 2010.
- Gingras, D.R., Barnhart, B., Ranaudo, R., Ratvasky, T.P., and Morelli, E., “Envelope Protection for In-Flight Ice Contamination,” AIAA Paper 2009-1458, Jan. 2009.
- Lee, S., Ratvasky, T.P., Thacker, M., and Barnhart, B.P., “Geometry and Reynolds Number Scaling Experiments with Simulated Ice Accretions,” AIAA Paper 2005-1066, Jan. 2005, also NASA TM-2005-213575, Aug. 2005.
- Lee, S., Barnhart, B.P., Ratvasky, T.P., and Thacker, M., “Dynamic Wind-Tunnel Testing of a Sub-scale Iced Business Jet,” AIAA Paper 2006-0261, Jan. 2006, also NASA TM-2006-214268, May 2006.
- Ratvasky, T.P., Barnhart, B.P., Lee, S., and Cooper, J., “Flight Testing an Iced Business Jet for Flight Simulation Model Validation,” AIAA Paper 2007-0089, Jan. 2007, also NASA TM-2007-214936, Dec. 2007.
- Ratvasky, T.P., Barnhart, B.P., and Lee, S., “Current Methods Modeling and Simulating Icing Effects on Aircraft Performance, Stability, Control.” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 47, No. 1, Jan.-Feb., 2010, pp. 201-211, also AIAA Paper 2008-6204, Aug. 2008.
- Kline, S., and McClintock, F.A., “Describing Uncertainties in Single Sample Experiments,” Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 75, No. 1, 1953, pp. 3-8.
- Coleman, H.W., and Steele, W.G., Experimentation and Uncertainty Analysis for Engineers, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1989.
- Wright, W.B., “User's Manual for LEWICE Version 3.2,” NASA/CR-2008-214255, Nov. 2008.
- Bidwell, C.S., Pinella, D., and Garrison, P., “Ice Accretion Calculations for a Commercial Transport Using the LEWICE3D, ICEGRID3D and CMARC Programs,” NASA/TM-1999-208895, Jan. 1999.
- Poll, D.I.A., “Spiral Vortex Flow Over a Swept-back Wing,” Aeronautical Journal, May 1986, pp. 185-199.
- Abbott, I.H., and Von Doenhoff, A.E., Theory of Wing Sections, Dover, New York, NY, 1959.
- Polhamus, E.C., “A Survey of Reynolds Number and Wing Geometry Effects on Lift Characteristics in the Low-Speed Stall Region,” NASA CR-4745, Jun. 1996.
- Furlong, G.C., and McHugh, J.G., “A Summary and Analysis of the Low-Speed Longitudinal Characteristics of Swept Wings at High Reynolds Number,” NACA TR-1339, 1952.
- Kaneshige, J., “Development of a Full-Scale Generic Transport Model (GTM) Simulation,” Private Communication, Sept. 21, 2010.
- Rae, W.H.Jr., and Pope, A., Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1984.
- Reehorst, A., Potapczuk, M., Ratvasky, T., and Laflin, B.G., “Wind-Tunnel Measured Effects on a Twin-Engine Short-Haul Transport Caused by Simulated Ice Accretions,” AIAA Paper 96-0871, Jan. 1996, also NASA TM-107143, Jan. 1996, see also Data Report, NASA TM-107419, May 1997.
- Lynch, F.T., and Khodadoust, A., “Effects of Ice Accretion on Aircraft Aerodynamics,” Progress in Aerospace Sciences, Vol. 37, No. 8, Nov. 2001, pp. 669-767.
- Zierten, T.A., and Hill, E.G., “Effects of Wing Simulated Ground Frost on Airplane Performance” in Influence of Environmental Factors on Aircraft Wing Performance, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Lecture Series 1987-03, Feb. 1987.
- Van Hengst, J., Gent, R., Hammond, D., Seubert, R., and Wagner, B., “Ice Accretion and Its Effects on Aircraft,” in Ice Accretion Simulation, AGARD AR-344, Paper 3, Dec. 1997.
- Potapczuk, M.G., Bragg, M.B., Kwon, O.J., and Sankar, L.N., “Simulation of Iced Wing Aerodynamics,” in Effects of Adverse Weather on Aerodynamics, AGARD CP-496, Paper 7, Dec. 1991. Also NASA TM-104362, May 1991.
- Bragg, M.B., Kerho, M.F., and Khodadoust, A., “LDV Flowfield Measurements on a Straight and Swept Wing with a Simulated Ice Accretion,” AIAA Paper 93-0300, Jan. 1993.