This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
FENSAP-ICE in Aid of Certification: From CFD to Flight Testing
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published June 13, 2011 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
CFD-Icing (CFD-I) is a powerful companion to CFD-Aero (CFD-A) in the design and certification of new aircraft, rotorcraft and jet engines. It can drastically reduce the number of tunnel and flight tests, and their associated costs, by simulating on computers the full Appendix C and beyond such as is proposed in new Appendices D and O. It can also predict performance and moment coefficients in roll, pitch and yaw. These predictions can then be used in original certification or supplemental certifications to the type design, allowing mitigating potential hazards of flight-testing. This work presents an example of the application of FENSAP-ICE to predict 45 minutes of ice accretion on a RC-26B aircraft fuselage retrofitted by the addition of a FLIR sensor and a SATCOM antenna. The predicted aerodynamic penalties are compared with recorded flight test data obtained with simulated ice shapes. Of further interest is that two similar FLIR installations were tested with post-processed data to account for minor differences in the vertical dimension of the FLIR sensor installation. This validation campaign shows the ability of such second-generation CFD-I tools to properly model the impact of ice accretion, starting from clean aerodynamics, to water impingement, to ice accretion, to aerodynamic characteristics of contaminated aircraft.
CitationDow, Sr., J., Aliaga, C., Shah, S., Chen, J. et al., "FENSAP-ICE in Aid of Certification: From CFD to Flight Testing," SAE Technical Paper 2011-38-0033, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-38-0033.
- Ashenden, R.A., “Turboprop Aircraft Performance Response in Various Environmental Conditions,” Ph.D., Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Wyoming, December 1997.
- Baruzzi, G.S., Habashi, W.G., Guèvremont, G., and Hafez, M.M., “A Second Order Finite Element Method for the Solution of the Transonic Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations,” International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Vol. 20, 1995, pp. 671-693.
- Beaugendre, H., Morency, F., and Habashi, W.G., “ICE3D, FENSAP-ICE's 3D In-Flight Ice Accretion Module,” AIAA Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 40, No 2, March-April 2003, pp. 239-247.
- Beaugendre, H., Morency, F., and Habashi, W.G., “FENSAP-ICE's Three-Dimensional In-flight Ice Accretion Module,” AIAA Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 40, No. 3, May-June 2003, pp. 239-247.
- Beaugendre, H., Morency, F., and Habashi, W.G., “Roughness Implementation: Model Calibration and Influence on Ice Shapes”, AIAA Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 40, No. 6, pp. 1212-1215, November/December 2003.
- Beaugendre, H., Morency, F., and Habashi, W.G., “Development of a Second Generation In-flight Icing Code,” ASME Transactions, Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 128, pp. 378-387, March 2006.
- Bidwell, C.S., and Mohler, S.R., “Collection Efficiency and Ice Accretion Calculations for a Sphere, a Swept MS(1)-317 Wing, a Swept NACA-0012 Wing Tip, an Axisymmetric Inlet, and a Boeing 737-300 Inlet,” NASA Technical Memorandum 106831 and AIAA-95-0755, January 1995.
- Bourgault, Y., Habashi, W.G., Dompierre, J., and Baruzzi, G.S., “A Finite Element Method Study of Eulerian Droplets Impingement Models,” International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Vol. 29, 1999, pp. 429-449.
- Bourgault, Y., Beaugendre, H., and Habashi, W.G., “Development of a Shallow Water Icing Model in FENSAP-ICE,” AIAA Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 37, 2000, pp. 640-646.
- Broeren, A.P., and Bragg, M.B., “Effect of Residual and Intercycle Ice Accretions on Airfoil Performance,” DOT/FAA/AR-02/68, May 2002.
- Brown, A.P., Aitken, J.F., Isaac, G.A., Cober, S.G., Bailey, M., and Korolev, A., “Aerodynamic Effects of Freezing Drizzle in the Landing Pattern: A Case Study,” AIAA Paper 2006-0263.
- Chi, X., Williams, B., Crist, N., Kreeger, R.E., Hindman, R., and Shih, T.I.-P., “2-D and 3-D CFD Simulations of Clean and Iced Wings,” AIAA Paper 2006-1267, 2006.
- Chung, J.J., and Addy, H.E., “A Numerical Evaluation of Icing Effects on Natural Laminar Flow Airfoil,” NASA TM-2000-209775 and AIAA Paper 2000-0096, 2000.
- Croce, G., De Candido, E., Habashi, W.G., Munzar, J., Aubé, M.S., Baruzzi, G.S., and Aliaga, C.N., “FENSAP-ICE: A Numerical Model for Predicting Spatial and Temporal Evolution of In-flight Icing Roughness”, AIAA Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 47, No. 4, pp. 1283-1289, July-August 2010.
- Cober, S.G., and Isaac, G. A., “Aircraft Icing Environments Observed In Mixed-Phase Clouds,” AIAA Paper 2002-0675, January 2002.
- Dezitter, F., Montreuil, E., Guffond, D., Caminade, F., Catris, S., Arnal, D., Aupoix, B., and Houdeville, R., “Enhancement of Prediction Capability in Icing Accretion and Related Performance Penalties. Part II: CFD Prediction of the Performance Degradation due to Ice,” AIAA Paper 2009-3970, June 2009.
- Dow, J.P.Sr., “Understanding the Stall-recovery Procedure for Turboprop Airplanes in Icing Conditions,” Flight Safety Digest, April 2005.
- Dow, J.P.Sr., “Pilots can Minimize the Likelihood of Aircraft Roll Upset in Severe Icing,” Flight Safety Digest, January 2006.
- Dow, J.P.Sr., and Marwitz, J., “Rough Ice is Bad Ice,” AeroSafety World, December 2009 - January 2010.
- Federal Aviation Administration, “Aircraft Ice Protection,” Advisory Circular 20-73A.
- Federal Aviation Administration, “Certification of Part 23 Airplanes for Flight in Icing Conditions,” Advisory Circular 23.1419-2D.
- Federal Aviation Administration, “Airworthiness Standards: Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter Category Airplanes,” Title 14: Aeronautics and Space, Part 23.
- Federal Aviation Administration, “Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Airplanes,” Title 14: Aeronautics and Space, Part 25.
- Kreeger, R.E., and Wright, W.B., “The Influence of Viscous Effects on Ice Accretion Prediction and Airfoil Performance Predictions,” NASA/TM-2005-213593 and AIAA Paper 2005-1373, March 2005.
- Habashi, W.G., “Recent Advances in CFD for In-Flight Icing Simulation,” Japan Society of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2009, pp. 99-118.
- Hunsek, R., Habashi, W.G., and Aubé, M.S., “Eulerian Modeling of In-Flight Icing due to Supercooled Large Droplets,” AIAA Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 45, No. 4, pp. 1290-1296, August 2008.
- Messinger, B.L., “Equilibrium Temperature of an Unheated Icing Surface as a Function of Airspeed,” Journal of Aeronautical Sciences, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1953, pp. 29-42.
- National Transportation Safety Board, “Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data,” U.S. General Aviation, 2005.
- Petty, K.R., and Floyd, C. D. J., “A Statistical Review of Aviation Airframe Icing Accidents in the US,” 11th American Society for Microbiology Conference on Aviation, Range, and Aerospace, Hyannis, MA, 2004.
- Steuernagle, J., Roy, K., and Wright, D., “Safety Advisor: Aircraft Icing,” AOPA Air Safety Foundation, 2008.
- Tanner, C.E., “The Effect of Wing Leading Edge Contamination on the Stall Characteristics of Aircraft,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-3286, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-3286.