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Sensor Video Integration and Processing in the Modular Avionics Architecture
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 18, 2011 by SAE International in United States
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Use of airborne high resolution digital sensor imagery is ever increasing. Color HDTV, infrared cameras and radar are examples of such sensors. And they are becoming increasingly used for mission purposes by the military, police, customs and coast guard onboard helicopters and fixed wing aircraft. These users have requirements for onboard presentation, analysis and storage. Use of weather radars and other similar types of sensors are flight oriented applications in major types of aircraft.
Another application is the integration of cockpit and cabin surveillance systems onboard commercial airlines. Cabin surveillance systems, growing from cockpit door cameras to complete cabin surveillance, will use several cameras. The purpose is to acquire and store imagery from un-normal events including unruly passengers and eventual terrorists. The primary intentions are security awareness in the cockpit as well as collecting evidence for a potential prosecution. Further advancement may include image library technologies, high level image processing, anomaly detection and data link connections.
Integration of sensor image video into the modular avionic architecture is a challenge due to the high bandwidth and wide range of requirements set by the different applications. Examples of high-end applications are use of infrared sensor in an Enhanced Vision System and use of color HDTV for customs or police search operations to acquire intelligence. Low-end applications include mainly non-flight related use, for example cargo bay surveillance.
The sensor imagery needs to be presented onboard and often also recorded (stored). The different sensor video signals need to be transferred over a network or similar architecture to be available for presentation on desired displays. The sensors often have a different resolution and a different format than the displays. Use of image processing may also be needed to improve onboard analysis. The display function requires scaling, format conversion, de-interlacing and switching. For storing large amount of image data there is a need for data compression. Commercial image compression algorithm such as mpeg2, mpeg4 and jpeg2000 are used. The image storage can be regarded as a multi-channel video recorder. The handling and storage of the sensor video need to be supported by ground stations.
CitationBrandtberg, H., "Sensor Video Integration and Processing in the Modular Avionics Architecture," SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-2698, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-2698.
- ARINC Specification 817, Avionics Digital Video Bus, Low Data Rate - Uncompressed. This standard describes a digital video interface for use in all types of avionic equipment. This standard is an adaptation of SMPTE 259M, Serial Digital Interface Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE)
- ARINC Specification 818-1, Avionics Digital Video Bus (ADVB) High Data Rate. This document defines digital video interface standards for all types of flight deck video. It represents the consensus view of airlines, airframe manufacturers, avionic suppliers, and others who participated in the development of this standard. This document is based on ANSI Fibre Channel Audio Video (FC-AV) defined by ANSI INCITS 356-2002
- VESA www.vesa.org
- SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) ANSI/SMPTE video standards www.smpte.org
- STANAG 3350 (Analogue Video Standard for Aircraft System Applications)