This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
The Impacts of Mid-level Biofuel Content in Gasoline on SIDI Engine-out and Tailpipe Particulate Matter Emissions
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 25, 2010 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
In this work, the influences of ethanol and iso-butanol blended with gasoline on engine-out and post three-way catalyst (TWC) particle size distribution and number concentration were studied using a General Motors (GM) 2.0L turbocharged spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was operated using the production engine control unit (ECU) with a dynamometer controlling the engine speed and the accelerator pedal position controlling the engine load. A TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) spectrometer was used to measure the particle size distribution in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. U.S. federal certification gasoline (E0), two ethanol-blended fuels (E10 and E20), and 11.7% iso-butanol blended fuel (BU12) were tested. Measurements were conducted at 10 selected steady-state engine operation conditions.
Bi-modal particle size distributions were observed for all operating conditions with peak values at particle sizes of 10 nm and 70 nm. Idle and low-speed / low-load conditions emitted higher total particle numbers than other operating conditions. At idle, the engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions were dominated by nucleation mode particles, and the production TWC reduced these nucleation mode particles by more than 50%, while leaving the accumulation mode particle distribution unchanged. At an engine load higher than 6 bar net mean effective pressure (NMEP), accumulation mode particles dominated the engine-out particle emissions, and the TWC had little effect. Compared to the baseline gasoline (E0), E10 does not significantly change PM emissions, while E20 and BU12 both reduce PM emissions under the conditions studied. Iso-butanol was observed to impact PM emissions more than ethanol, with up to 50% reductions at some conditions.
In this paper, issues related to PM measurement using the FMPS are also discussed. While some uncertainties are due to engine variation, the FMPS must be carefully maintained in order to achieve repeatable measurement results.
- John T. Tester - Northern Arizona Univ.
- Xin He - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- John C. Ireland - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- Bradley T. Zigler - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- Matthew A. Ratcliff - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- Keith E. Knoll - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- Teresa L. Alleman - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
CitationHe, X., Ireland, J., Zigler, B., Ratcliff, M. et al., "The Impacts of Mid-level Biofuel Content in Gasoline on SIDI Engine-out and Tailpipe Particulate Matter Emissions," SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-2125, 2010, https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-2125.
- Wang, M. Wu, M. Huo, H. “Life-cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Impacts of Different Corn Ethanol Plant Types,” Environmental Research Letters 2 May 22 2007
- Knoll, K. West, B. Clark, W. Graves, R. Orban, J. Przesmitzki, S. Theiss, T. “Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated,” NREL/TP-540-43543 and ORNL/TM-2008/117 February 2009
- Knoll, K. West, B. Huff, S. Thomas, J. et al. “Effects of Mid-Level Ethanol Blends on Conventional Vehicle Emissions,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-2723 2009 10.4271/2009-01-2723
- Baas, C. Graham, L. “Emissions from 4 Different Light Duty Vehicle Technologies Operating on Low Blend Ethanol Gasoline, Report 04-27 A: Tailpipe Greenhouse Gases (CO2, CH4, N2O),” Environment Canada, ERMD REPORT # 04-27 A
- Baas, C. Graham, L. “Emissions from 4 Different Light Duty Vehicle Technologies Operating on Low Blend Ethanol Gasoline, Report B: Tailpipe Regulated & Unregulated Gaseous Emissions (CO, NO X , THC, NMHC, NMOG, Ethanol, Carbonyls, VOC),” Environment Canada, ERMD REPORT # 04-27 B
- Christenson, M. Graham, L. Baas, C. “Emissions from 4 Different Light Duty Vehicle Technologies Operating on Low Blend Ethanol Gasoline, Report C: Tailpipe Particulate Matter and Particulate Matter Precursor Emissions (PM2.5, OC/EC, particle phase ions, gas phase ions, PAH, SO2, NH3),” Environment Canada, ERMD REPORT # 04-27 C
- Baas, C. Graham, L. “Emissions from 4 Different Light Duty Vehicle Technologies Operating on Low Blend Ethanol Gasoline, Report D: Diurnal & Hot Soak Evaporative Emissions (Ethanol, NMOG & Speciated NMHC),” Environment Canada, ERMD REPORT # 04-27 D
- Grigg, J. “The Health Effects of Fossil Fuel Derived Particles,” Archives of Disease in Childhood 86 2 79 83 February 2002
- Goldberg, S. V. “Cancer Tip: Nanoparticles Can Damage DNA, Increase Cancer Risk,” American Association for Cancer Research April 17 2007
- Schreiber, D. Forss, A.M. Mohr, M. Dimopoulos, P. “Particle Characterisation of Modern CNG, Gasoline and Diesel Passenger Cars,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-24-0123 2007 10.4271/2007-24-0123
- Ericsson, P. Holmström, M. Amberntsson-Carlsson, A. Ohlson, C. et al. “Characterization of Particulate Emissions and Methodology for Oxidation of Particulates from Non-Diesel Combustion Systems,” SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-1746 2008 10.4271/2008-01-1746
- Price, P. Stone, R. Collier, T. Davies, M. “Particulate Matter and Hydrocarbon Emissions Measurements: Comparing First and Second Generation DISI with PFI in Single Cylinder Optical Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-1263 2006 10.4271/2006-01-1263
- Chen, L. Braisher, M. Crossley, A. Stone, R. et al. “The Influence of Ethanol Blends on Particulate Matter Emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0793 2010 10.4271/2010-01-0793
- Varde, K.S. Manoharan, N.K. “Characterization of Exhaust Emissions in a SI Engine using E85 and Cooled EGR,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1952 2009 10.4271/2009-01-1952
- Czerwinski, J. Comte, P. Reutimann, F. Makkee, M. “Emissions of 2-Stroke Scooters with Ethanol Blends,” SAE Int. J. Engines 2 2 627 638 2009 10.4271/2009-24-0143
- Muralidharan, M. Subramanian, M. Kanal, P.C. Malhotra, R.K. “Characterisation of Particulates with Different Blends of Ethanol-Gasoline in Two Wheelers,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-0686 2009 10.4271/2009-01-0686
- Hall, D.E. Dickens, C.J. “Measurement of the Numbers of Emitted Gasoline Particles: Genuine or Artefact?” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-2957 2000 10.4271/2000-01-2957
- Mohr, M. Forss, A.-M. Steffen, D. “Particulate Emissions of Gasoline Vehicles and Influence of the Sampling Procedure,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1137 2000 10.4271/2000-01-1137
- Li, W. Collins, J.F. Norbeck, J.M. Cocker, D.R. III et al. “Assessment of Particulate Matter Emissions from a Sample of In-Use ULEV and SULEV Vehicles,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-1076 2006 10.4271/2006-01-1076
- Zervas, E. Dorlhène, P. Daviau, R. Dionnet, B. “Repeatability of Fine Particle Measurement of Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Exhaust Gas,” SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1983 2004 10.4271/2004-01-1983
- He, X. Ireland, J. C. Zigler, B. T. Ratcliff, M. A. Knoll, K. E. Alleman, T. L. Luecke, J. H. Tester, J. T. “The Impacts of Mid-level Alcohol Content in Gasoline on SIDI Engine-out and Tailpipe Emissions,” ASME 2010 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF2010-35106 September 2010
- “Model 3091 Fast Mobility Particle Sizer™ Spectrometer-Operation and Service Manual,” P/N 1980520, Revision B TSI Incorporated March 2006
- Yu, F. “Formation of Volatile Nanoparticles in Motor Vehicle Exhaust-Final Report,” New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Report 07-12 September 2007
- Samaras, Z. Ntziachristos, L. Thompson, N. Hall, D. Westerholm, R. Boulter, P. “Characterization of Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Vehicles (PARTICULATES),” European Commission - DG TrEn, 5th Framework Programme, Final Publishable Report April 2005
- Graskow, B.R. Kittelson, D.B. Ahmadi, M.R. Morris, J.E. “Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Two Port Fuel Injected Spark Ignition Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-1144 1999 10.4271/1999-01-1144