This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Comparative Emissions from Diesel and Biodiesel Fueled Buses from 2002 to 2008 Model Years
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 05, 2010 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Fuel economy and regulated emissions were measured from eight forty-foot transit buses operated on petroleum diesel and a “B20” blend of 80% diesel fuel and 20% biodiesel by volume. Use of biodiesel is attractive to displace petroleum fuel and reduce an operation's carbon footprint. Usually it is assumed that biodiesel will also reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to those of petroleum diesel. Model years of the vehicles evaluated were newer 2007-08 Gillig low-floor buses, 2005 Gillig Phantom buses, and a 2002 Gillig Phantom bus. Engine technology represented three different emissions standards, and included buses with OEM diesel particulate filters. Each bus was evaluated using two transient speed-time schedules, the Orange County Transit Authority (OCTA) driving schedule which represents moderate speed urban/suburban operation and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) which represents a mix of suburban and higher speed on-highway operation. On road coast down runs confirmed that the road load was appropriate. Average fuel economy was 33% higher over the UDDS and average distance specific oxides of nitrogen emissions were 30% lower that observed over the OCTA. Distance specific particulate matter emissions were higher over the UDDS for five of the eight buses including both buses with and without aftertreatment. A comparison between tests performed with diesel fuel and those performed with B20 fuels showed no discernable difference in fuel economy, inconsistent but slightly higher oxides of nitrogen emissions. The use of B20 resulted in significant reductions in distance specific particulate matter emissions as compared to the use of conventional diesel fuel with a 26% reduction over the OCTA and a 32% reduction over the UDDS. Oxides of nitrogen emissions from the 2007-08 buses were the lowest of those examined, followed by the 2005 buses while the 2002 bus had the highest NOx emissions which was consistent with certification NOx levels for their engine families. Particulate matter emissions from the 2007-08 buses, which were equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) were over 90% lower than those from the 2005 and 2002 model year buses. There were fuel economy effects associated with both bus size and bus model year.
- Nigel Clark - West Virginia Univ
- David L. McKain - West Virginia Univ
- Petr Sindler - West Virginia Univ
- Ronald Jarrett - West Virginia Univ
- John Nuszkowski - West Virginia Univ
- Mridul Gautam - West Virginia Univ
- W Wayne - West Virginia Univ
- Gregory Thompson - West Virginia Univ
- Ricky Sonny - Central Florida RTA
CitationClark, N., McKain, D., Sindler, P., Jarrett, R. et al., "Comparative Emissions from Diesel and Biodiesel Fueled Buses from 2002 to 2008 Model Years," SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-1967, 2010, https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-1967.
- Huo, H., Wang, M., Bloyd, C., and Putsche, V., “Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Greenhouse Gas Effects of Soybean-Derived Biodiesel and Renewable Fuels,” Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Report ANL/ESD/08-2, 2008.
- LeTavec, C., Uihlein, J., Vertin, K., Chatterjee, S. et al., “Year-Long Evaluation of Trucks and Buses Equipped with Passive Diesel Particulate Filters,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0433, 2002, doi:10.4271/2002-01-0433.
- Olatunji, I.O., Clark, N., Sindler, P., Thompson, G. et al., “Biodiesel Blend Emissions of a 2007 Medium Heavy Duty Diesel Truck,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-1968, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-1968.
- Durbin, T. D., Cocker, D. R., Sawant, A. A., Johnson, K., Miller, J.W., Holden, B.B., Helgeson, N.L., and Jack, J.A., “Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Fuels from On/Off-Road Applications,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 41, Issue 27, pp 5647-5658, September 2007.
- Durbin, T.D. and Robertson, W., “Comprehensive Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel in California,” 20th Coordinating Research Council On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop, San Diego, CA, March 2010.
- Williams, A., McCormick, B., Hays, B., Ireland, J., and Fang, H.L., “Diesel Particulate Filter Performance with Biodiesel Blends,” Diesel Engine Efficiency and Emissions Research Conference, August 2006.
- McCormick, R.L., Williams, A., Ireland, J., Brimhall, M., and Hayes, R.R., “Effects of Biodiesel Blends on Vehicle Emissions,”, NREL Milestone Report MP-540-40554, October 2006.
- Thompson, G.J. and Nuszkowski, J., “Neat Fuel Influence on Biodiesel Blend Emissions,” J Engine Research, 11(1):61-77, 2009.
- Code of Federal Regulations, “Protection of the Environment,” Volume 40, Part 86, United States Environmental Protection Agency.
- SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Vehicle Practice J2711, “Recommended Practice for Measuring Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid-Electric and Conventional Heavy-Duty Vehicles,” September 2002.
- Wayne, W.S., Clark, N.N., Khan, Abm.S., Gautam, M., Thompson, G.J., and Lyons, D.W., “Regulated and Non-regulated Emissions and Fuel Economy from Conventional Diesel, Hybrid-Electric Diesel and Natural Gas Transit Buses,” Journal of the Transportation Research Forum, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 105-126, October 2008.
- Clark, N., Borrell, E., McKain, D., Paramo, V., Wayne, W., Vergara, W., Barnett, R., Gautam, M., Thompson, G., Lyons, D., and Schipper, L., “Evaluation of Emissions from New and In-Use Transit Buses in Mexico City, Mexico,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Issue 1987, 2006.
- Wu, Y., Clark, N., Carder, D., and Shade, B., “Nano Particulate Matter Evolution in a CFR1065 Dilution Tunnel,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-2672, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-2672.
- Wu, Y., Carder, D., Shade, B., Atkinson, R., Clark, N.N., and Gautam, M., “A CFR1065-Compliant Transportable/On-Road Low Emissions Measurement Laboratory with Dual Primary Full-Flow Dilution Tunnels,” Proceedings of ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division 2009 Spring Technical Conference, ICES2009, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, May 3-6 2009.
- Williams, A., McCormick, R.L., Hayes, R., and Ireland, J., “Biodiesel Effects on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance,” NREL Milestone Report TP-540-39696, March 2006.
- Graham, L., Rideout, G., Rosenblatt, D., and Hendren, J., “Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Heavy Duty Vehicles,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 42, Issue 19, June 2008.
- EPA Lifecycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Renewable Fuels, EPA-420-F-10-006, February 2010.