This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Optical Characterization of the Combustion Process in a 4- Stroke Engine for 2-Wheel Vehicle.
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 13, 2009 by Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche in Italy
Annotation ability available
The match among the increasing performance demands and the stringent requirements of emissions and the fuel consumption reduction needs a strong evolution in the two-wheel vehicle technology. In particular, many steps forward should be taken for the optimization of modern small motorcycles and scooters at low engine speeds and high loads. To this aim, detailed understanding of thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena that occur in the combustion chamber is fundamental.
In this work, low-cost solutions are proposed to optimize ported fuel injection spark ignition (PFI SI) engines for two-wheel vehicles. The solutions are based on the change of phasing and on the splitting of the fuel injection in the intake manifold.
The experimental activities were carried out in the combustion chamber of a single-cylinder 4-stroke optical engine fuelled with European commercial gasoline. The engine was equipped with a four-valve head of a commercial scooter engine.
High spatial resolution cycle-resolved digital imaging was used to characterise the flame propagation. It was investigated the presence of diffusion-controlled flames near the valves and on the cylinder walls that induced the formation of unburned hydrocarbons and soot particles, The in-cylinder optical investigations were correlated with engine performance and exhaust emissions.
- L. Carmignani - Piaggio & C. Spa, Pontedera, Pisa (Italy)
- S. Di Palma - Piaggio & C. Spa, Pontedera, Pisa (Italy)
- S. S. Merola - Istituto Motori — CNR, Napoli (Italy)
- P. Sementa - Istituto Motori — CNR, Napoli (Italy)
- C. Tornatore - Istituto Motori — CNR, Napoli (Italy)
- B. M. Vaglieco - Istituto Motori — CNR, Napoli (Italy)
CitationMerola, S., Sementa, P., Tornatore, C., Vaglieco, B. et al., "Optical Characterization of the Combustion Process in a 4- Stroke Engine for 2-Wheel Vehicle.," SAE Technical Paper 2009-24-0055, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2009-24-0055.
- Han, X. Naeher, L.P. 2006 A review of traffic-related air pollution exposure assessment studies in the developing world Environmental International 32 106 120
- Singh, S.K. 2006 Future mobility in India: implications for energy demand and CO2 emission Transport Policy 13 398 412
- Vasic, A.-M. Weilenmann, M. 2006 Comparison of real-world emissions from two wheelers and passenger cars Environmental Science and Technology 40 149 154
- Ntziachristos, L. Mamakos, A. Samaras, Z. Xanthopoulos, A. Iakovou, E. 2006 Emission control options for power two wheelers in Europe Atmospheric Environment 40 4547 4561
- Shin, Y. Cheng, W.K. Heywood, J.B. 1994 Liquid Gasoline Behaviour in the Engine Cylinder of a SI Engine SAE Paper n. 941872
- Zhu, G.S. Reitz, R.D. Xin, J. Takabayashi, T. 2001 Modelling Characteristics of Gasoline Wall Films in the Intake Port of Port Fuel Injection Engines Int. J. of Engine Research Vol. 2 4 231 248
- Bockhorn, H. 1994 Soot Formation in Combustion: Mechanisms and Models Springer Berlin
- Drake, M.C. Fansler, T.D. Solomon, A.S. Szekely, G.A. Jr. 2003 Piston fuel films as a source of smoke and hydrocarbon emissions from a wall-controlled spark-ignited direct- injection engine SAE Paper n. 2003-01-0547
- Zhao, H. Ladommatos, N. 2001 Engine Combustion Instrumentation and Diagnostics' SAE Int.
- Winklhofer E. 2001 Optical access and diagnostic techniques for internal combustion engine development' J. Electron. Imaging Vol. 10 588
- Merola S.S. Vaglieco B.M. Consales S. Corcione E.F. Formisano G. 2001 Determination of size of fuel droplets and soot particles in a Diesel engine by broadband extinction and scattering spectroscopy Particle & Particle Systems Characterization 18 5–6 235 242
- Merola S.S. Vaglieco B.M. 2004 Analysis of common rail Diesel engine combustion process by optical diagnostics Proceedings International Conference on Automotive Technology — ICAT 2004 Istanbul (Turkey) 2004 45 59
- Merola S.S. Vaglieco B.M. 2007 Flame diagnostics in the combustion chamber of boosted PFI SI engine SAE Paper 2007-24-0003
- Braeuer, A. Koch, P. Weikl, M. Blotevogel, T. Kremer, H. Hartmann, M. Leipertz, A. 2006 Optical measurement techniques for the investigation of mixture formation and combustion in hydrogen internal combustion engines' 1 st Int. Symposium on Hydrogen Combustion Engines Graz/Österreich
- Leipertz A. Wensing M. 2007 Modern optical diagnostics in engine research' Third International Conference on Optical and Laser Diagnostics, Journal of Physics: Conference Series 85
- Heywood, J.B. 1988 Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals New York McGraw-Hill
- Hacohen J Belmont MR Thurley RWF Thomas JC Morris EL Buckingham DJ 1992 Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Flame Development and Misfire Phenomena in a Spark-ignition Engine SAE paper n. 920412
- Merola SS Vaglieco BM Formisano G Lucignano G Mastrangelo G 2007 Flame Diagnostics in the Combustion Chamber of Boosted PFI SI Engine SAE paper n. 2007-24-0003
- Mörsch, O. Sorsche, P. (DaimlerChrysler AG) Investigation of Alternative Methods to Determine Particulate Mass Emissions, http://www.oica.net/htdocs
- Combustion-Related Emissions in SI Engines Handbook of Air Pollution From Internal Combustion Engines 1998 118 170
- Costanzo, V.S. Heywood, J.B. 2005 Mixture Preparation Mechanisms in a Port Fuel Injected Engine SAE Paper n. 2005-01-2080
- Gold, M.R. Arcoumanis, C Whitelaw, J.H. Gaade, J. Wallace, S. 2000 Mixture Preparation Strategies in an Optical Four-Valve Port-Injected Gasoline Engine Int. J. of Engine Research Vol. 1 1 41 56
- Nogi, T. Ohyama, Y. Yamauchi, T. Kuroiwa H. 1988 Mixture Formation of Fuel Injection Systems in Gasoline Engines SAE Paper n. 880558
- Meyer, R. Heywood, J.B. 1997 Liquid Fuel Transport Mechanisms into the Cylinder of a Firing Port-Injected SI Engine During Start Up SAE Paper n. 970865
- Bianco, Y. Cheng, W. Heywood, J. 1992 The Effects of Initial Flame Kernel conditions on Flame Development in SI Engines SAE paper n. 912402
- Witze, P. Hall, M. Bennet, M. 1990 Cycle-resolved Measurements of Flame Kernel Growth and Motion Correlated with Combustion Duration SAE paper n. 900023
- Merola, S.S. Sementa, P. Tornatore, C. Vaglieco, B.M. 2009 Effect of Injection Phasing on Valves and Chamber Fuel Deposition Burning in a PFI Boosted Spark-Ignition Engine SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants April 2009 1 192 200
- Merola, S.S. Sementa, P. Tornatore, C Vaglieco, B.M. 2008 Effect of the Fuel Injection Strategy on the Combustion Process in a PFI Boosted Spark-Ignition Engine Proc. ECOS 2008 Conference Volume I 467
- Witze, P. O. Green, R. M. 1997 LIF and Flame-Emission Imaging of Liquid Fuel Films and Pool Fires in an SI Engine During a Simulated Cold Start SAE Paper n. 970866