This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Optimization of Operating Conditions in the Early Direct Injection Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Regime
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 13, 2009 by Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche in Italy
Annotation ability available
Early Direct Injection Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (EDI PCCI) is a widely researched combustion concept, which promises soot and CO2 emission levels of a spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engine, respectively. Application of this concept to a conventional CI engine using a conventional CI fuel faces a number of challenges. First, EDI has the intrinsic risk of wall-wetting, i.e. collision of fuel against the combustion chamber periphery. Second, engine operation in the EDI regime is difficult to control as auto-ignition timing is largely decoupled from fuel injection timing.
In dual-mode PCCI engines (i.e. conventional Dl at high loads) wall-wetting should be prevented by selecting appropriate (most favorable) operating conditions (EGR level, intake temperature, injection timing-strategy etc.) rather than by redesign of the engine (combustion chamber shape, injector replacement etc.). This paper presents the effects of EGR concentration, intake temperature, intake pressure, injection timing, injection pressure and fuel temperature on engine performance and emission behavior in EDI PCCI mode. In addition, several minor adjustments to the conventional injector nozzle are investigated. Wall-wetting and engine performance are characterized by the measured emissions (smoke and unburned hydrocarbons) and in-cylinder pressure (CA50 and IMEP). The main contribution of this paper is to investigate the cumulative effects on engine performance and emissions, unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) in particular, of various known measures designed to address wall-wetting.
All experiments have been performed at low load (~ 3–4 bar IMEP) and at an engine speed of 1200 RPM, using a modified 6-cylinder 12.6 liter heavy-duty Dl DAF XE 355 C engine. Experiments are conducted in one dedicated cylinder, which is equipped with a stand-alone fuel injection system, EGR circuit and air compressor, fuelled with commercial diesel fuel (EN590).
CitationBoot, M., Luijten, C., Rijk, E., Albrecht, B. et al., "Optimization of Operating Conditions in the Early Direct Injection Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Regime," SAE Technical Paper 2009-24-0048, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2009-24-0048.
- Boot, M.D. Luijten, C.C.M. Somers, L.M.T. Eguz, U. van Erp, D.D.T.M. Albrecht, B.A. Baert, R.S.G. “Uncooled EGR as a means of limiting wall-wetting under early direct injection conditions” SAE Paper 2009-01-0665 2009
- Martin, G.C. Mueller, C.J. Milam, D.M. Radovanovich, M.S. Gehrke, C.R. “Early direct-injection, low-temperature combustion of diesel fuel in an optical engine utilizing a 15-hole, dual-row, narrow-included-angle nozzle” SAE Paper 2008-01-2400 2008
- Risberg, P. Kalghatgi, G. Angstrom, H-E. Wahlin, F. “Auto-ignition quality of diesel-like fuels in HCCI engines” SAE Paper 2005-01-2127 2005
- Ogawa, H. Kimura, S. Koike, M. Enomoto, Y. “A study of heat rejection and combustion characteristics of a low-temperature and pre-mixed combustion concept based on measurement of instantaneous heat flux in a direct-injection diesel engine” SAE Paper 2000-01-2792 2000
- Kimura, S. Aoki, O. Ogawa, H. Muranaka, S. “New combustion concept for ultra clean and high efficiency small Dl engines” SAE paper 1999-01-3681 1999
- Boot, M.D. Frijters, P.J.M. Klein-Douwel, R.J.H. Baert, R.S.G. “Oxygenated fuel composition impact on heavy duty diesel emissions” SAE Paper 2007-01-2018 2007
- Boot, M.D. Frijters, P.J.M. Luijten, C.C.M. Somers, L.M.T. Donkerbroek, A. Klein-Douwel, R.J.H. Dam, N. Baert, R.S.G. “Cyclic oxygenates: a new class of second generation biofuels for diesel engines?” Energy & Fuels 10.1021/ef8003637
- Kalghatgi, G. “Auto-ignition quality of practical fuels and implications for fuel requirements of future SI and HCCI engines” SAE Paper 2005-01-0239 2005
- Henein, N.A. Kastury, A. Natti, K. Bryzik, W. “Advanced Low temperature combustion (ALTC): diesel engine performance, fuel economy and emissions” SAE Paper 2008-01-0652 2008
- Kanda, T. Hakozaki, T. Uchimoto, T. Hatano, J. Kitayama, N. Sono, H. “PCCI operation with early injection of conventional diesel fuel” SAE Paper 2005-01-0378 2005
- Higgens, B.S. Mueller, C.J. Siebers, D.L “Measurements of fuel effects on liquid-phase penetration in Dl sprays” SAE Paper 1999-01-0519 1999
- Brigham Young University England http://dippr.byu.edu/
- Siebers, D.L. “Scaling liquid-phase fuel penetration in diesel sprays based on mixing limited vaporization” SAE Paper 1999-01-0528 1999