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Analysis of DPF Incombustible Materials from Volvo Trucks Using DPF-SCR-Urea With API CJ-4 and API CI-4 PLUS Oils
- James McGeehan - Chevron Global Lubricants and Chevron Energy Technology Company ,
- Sheila Yeh - Chevron Global Lubricants and Chevron Energy Technology Company ,
- James Rutherford - Chevron Global Lubricants and Chevron Energy Technology Company ,
- Melvin Couch - Chevron Global Lubricants and Chevron Energy Technology Company ,
- Bengt Otterholm - Volvo Technology and Volvo Powertrain ,
- Andreas Hinz - Volvo Technology and Volvo Powertrain ,
- Andrew Walker - Johnson Matthey, Catalytic Systems Division
ISSN: 1946-3952, e-ISSN: 1946-3960
Published June 15, 2009 by SAE International in United States
Citation: McGeehan, J., Yeh, S., Rutherford, J., Couch, M. et al., "Analysis of DPF Incombustible Materials from Volvo Trucks Using DPF-SCR-Urea With API CJ-4 and API CI-4 PLUS Oils," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 2(1):762-780, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2009-01-1781.
This paper reports on a field test with 23 Volvo D12C non-exhaust gas recirculation diesel engines using the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), and urea system with Ultra-Low-Sulfur-Diesel (ULSD). This combination will be used to meet the on-highway emission standards for U.S. 2010, Japan 2010, and Europe 2013.
Because of future widespread use of DPF-SCR, this study reports on our field experience with this system, and focuses on enhancing our understanding of the incombustible materials which are collected in the DPF with API CJ-4 and API CI-4 PLUS oils.
The average weight of incombustibles was lower in the trucks using API CJ-4 oils at 1.0% sulfated ash, than in those using API CI-4 PLUS oils at 1.4% sulfated ash. The difference in weight between the two groups was highly significant. Further, the weight of the incombustibles per kilometer substantially decreased with each subsequent cleaning within a truck.
The gray powder of incombustible materials recovered from the DPF is dominated by inorganic lubricant additives-Ca, Mg, P, S, Zn, and Mo. Calcium sulfate, zinc magnesium phosphate and zinc pyrophosphate were identif1ed. These materials accounted for more than 90% of the materials from the DPF. Wear metals and a small amount of carbon were also identified, and made up the material unaccounted for by the lube oil inorganics.
The particle size distribution of the incombustibles is bimodal, with a large number of particles at 0.4 microns and the remaining at 10 microns. Particles at 0.4 microns present inhalation and irritation health risk, and so exposure to incombustible trap ash should be minimized.
The DPF-SCR system provided excellent durability and reliability during this five year field test. Both API CJ-4 and API CI-4 PLUS oils demonstrated equal wear, viscosity control, and oil drain capability based on used oil analysis.