This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Experimental Investigation of Instantaneous Cyclic Heat Transfer in the Combustion Chamber and Exhaust Manifold of a DI Diesel Engine under Transient Operating Conditions
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 20, 2009 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
In this paper, the results are presented from the analysis of the second stage of an experimental investigation with the aim to provide insight to the cyclic, instantaneous heat transfer phenomena occurring in both the cylinder head and exhaust manifold wall surfaces of a direct injection (DI), air-cooled diesel engine. Results from the first stage of the investigation concerning steady-state engine operation have already been presented by the authors in this series. In this second stage, the mechanism of cyclic heat transfer was investigated during engine transient events, viz. after a sudden change in engine speed and/or load, both for the combustion chamber and exhaust manifold surfaces. The modified experimental installation allowed both long- and short-term signal types to be recorded on a common time reference base during the transient event. An updated version of an existing code implementing one-dimensional heat conduction theory with Fourier analysis techniques was used for the calculation of local surface heat flux evolution during each transient event. From the analysis of experimental results it is confirmed that each thermal transient event consists of two distinguished phases the “thermodynamic” and the “structural” one which are appropriately configured and analyzed. In the case of a severe variation, in the first 20 cycles after the beginning of the transient event, the wall surface temperature amplitude was almost three times higher than the one observed at the “normal” temperature oscillations occurring during the steady-state operation. At the same time, peak pressure values in the same cycles are increased by almost 15% above their corresponding values at the final steady state. The same phenomena are valid for the exhaust manifold surfaces but on a moderated scale. The analysis of long term temperature and heat flux responses during the structural phase, revealed characteristic differences existing in the mechanism of heat transfer among the different positions of the engine combustion chamber, confirming theoretical model predictions reported by the present authors in the past.
CitationMavropoulos, G., Rakopoulos, C., and Hountalas, D., "Experimental Investigation of Instantaneous Cyclic Heat Transfer in the Combustion Chamber and Exhaust Manifold of a DI Diesel Engine under Transient Operating Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1122, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2009-01-1122.
- Benson R.S., Whitehouse N.D., Internal Combustion Engines, Pergamon, Oxford, 1979.
- Heywood J.B., Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988.
- Ferguson C.R., Internal Combustion Engines, John Wiley, New York, 1986.
- Annand W.J.D. (1963). Heat transfer in the cylinders of reciprocating internal combustion engines. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 177, pp. 973-990.
- Borman G., Nishiwaki K. (1987). Internal-combustion engine heat transfer. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 13, pp. 1-46.
- Assanis D. N., Heywood J. B. (1986). Development and use of a computer simulation of the turbocompounded diesel engine performance and component heat transfer studies. Transactions of SAE, Journal of Engines, Vol. 95 [SAE Paper No. 860329].
- Whitehouse N.D. (1970-71). Heat transfer in a quiescent chamber diesel engine. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 185, pp. 963-975.
- Rakopoulos CD., Hountalas D.T. (1998). Development and validation of a 3-D multi-zone combustion model for the prediction of DI diesel engines performance and pollutants emissions. Transactions of SAE, Journal of Engines, Vol. 107, pp. 1413-1429 [SAE Paper No. 981021].
- Kouremenos D.A., Rakopoulos CD., Hountalas D.T. (1990). Thermodynamic analysis of indirect injection diesel engines by two-zone modelling of combustion. Transactions of ASME, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol. 112, pp. 138-149.
- Kouremenos D.A., Rakopoulos CD., Hountalas D.T. (1997). Multi-zone combustion modeling for the prediction of pollutants emissions and performance of DI diesel engines. Transactions of SAE, Journal of Engines, Vol. 106, pp. 940-957 [SAE Paper No. 970635].
- Keribar R., Morel T., Thermal shock calculations in I.C engines, presented at SAE International Congress & Exposition, 870162, 1987.
- Morel T., Wahiduzzaman S., Fort E.F., Heat transfer experiments in an insulated diesel, presented at SAE International Congress & Exposition, 880186, 1988.
- Enomoto Y., Furuhama S. (1989). A study of the local heat transfer coefficient on the combustion chamber walls of a four-stroke gasoline engine. Bulletin JSME, Vol. 32, pp. 107-114.
- Kamo R., Bryzik W., Cummins/TACOM advanced adiabatic engine, presented at SAE International Congress & Exposition, 840428, 1984.
- Assanis D.N. (1989). Effect of combustion chamber insulation on the performance of a low heat rejection diesel engine with exhaust heat recovery. Heat Recovery Systems & CHP, Vol. 9, pp. 475-484.
- Rakopoulos C.D., Antonopoulos K.A., Rakopoulos D.C., Giakoumis E.G. (2004). Investigation of the temperature oscillations in the cylinder walls of a diesel engine with special reference to the limited cooled case. Int. J. of Energy Research, Vol. 28, pp. 977-1002.
- Perez-Blanco H. (2004). Experimental characterization of mass, work and heat flows in an air cooled, single cylinder engine. Energy Conversion & Management, Vol. 45, pp. 157-169.
- Wu Y., Chen B., Hsieh F., Ke C., Heat transfer model for scooter engines, presented at SAE World Congress, 2008-01-0387, 2008.
- Nakashima K., Toda T., Ishihara S., Yamamoto M., Optimizing the cooling effect of fins with slits on an air-cooled cylinder by increasing natural convection, presented at SAE World Congress, 2008-01-1170, 2008.
- Chang J., Filipi Z., Assanis D., Kuo T.-W., Najt P., Rask R. (2005). Characterizing the thermal sensitivity of a gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition engine with measurements of instantaneous wall temperature and heat flux. Int. J. Engine Res., Vol. 6, pp. 289-309.
- Rakopoulos C.D., Scott M.A., Kyritsis D.C., Giakoumis E.G. (2008). Availability analysis of hydrogen/natural gas blends combustion in internal combustion engines. Energy, Vol. 33, pp. 248-255.
- Rakopoulos C.D., Antonopoulos K.A., Rakopoulos D.C. (2007). Experimental heat release analysis and emissions of a HSDI diesel engine fueled with ethanol–diesel fuel blends. Energy, Vol. 32, pp. 1791-1808.
- Rakopoulos C.D., Antonopoulos K.A., Rakopoulos D.C. (2007). Development and application of a multi-zone model for combustion and pollutants formation in direct injection Diesel engine running with vegetable oil or its bio-diesel. Energy Conversion & Management, Vol. 48, pp. 1881-1901.
- Alkidas A.C., Myers J.P. (1982). Transient heat-flux measurements in the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine. Transactions of ASME, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 104, pp.62-67.
- Alkidas A.C., Cole R.M. (1985). Transient heat-flux measurements in a divided-chamber diesel engine. Transactions of ASME, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 107, pp. 439-444.
- Liu Z., Jiang Y., Dong Z., Pi B., Liu Y., 3-D Numerical simulation of transient heat transfer among multi-component coupling system in internal combustion chamber, presented at SAE International Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants Congress, 2008-01-1818, 2008.
- Kanda T., Study on Euro IV combustion technologies for direct injection diesel engine, presented at SAE World Congress, 2004-01-0113, 2004.
- Mure C.R., Rhee K.T., Instantaneous heat transfer over the piston of a motored direct injection-type diesel engine, presented at SAE International Congress & Exposition, 890469, 1989.
- Rakopoulos C.D., Mavropoulos G.C. (1996). Study of the steady and transient temperature field and heat flow in the combustion chamber components of a medium speed diesel engine using finite element analyses. Int. J. of Energy Research, Vol. 20, pp. 437-464.
- Rakopoulos C.D., Mavropoulos G.C. (2000). Experimental instantaneous heat fluxes in the cylinder head and exhaust manifold of an air-cooled Diesel engine. Energy Conversion & Management, Vol. 41, pp. 1265-1281.
- Bohac S.V., Baker D.M., Assanis D.N., A global model for steady state and transient S.I. engine heat transfer studies, presented at SAE International Congress & Exposition, 960073, 1996.
- Lin C.S., Foster D.E., An analysis of ignition delay, heat transfer and combustion during dynamic load changes in a diesel engine, presented at SAE International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition, 892054, 1989.
- Assanis D.N., Filipi Z.S., Fiveland S.B., Syrimis M., A methodology for cycle-by-cycle transient heat release analysis in a turbocharged direct injection diesel engine, presented at SAE World Congress, 2000-01-1185, 2000.
- Wang X., Stone C.R. (2008). A study of combustion, instantaneous heat transfer, and emissions in a spark ignition engine during warm-up. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 222, pp 607-618.
- Rakopoulos C.D., Giakoumis E.G., Rakopoulos D.C. (2008). Study of the short-term cylinder wall temperature oscillations during transient operation of a turbocharged diesel engine with various insulation schemes. Int. J. Engine Res., Vol. 9, pp. 177-193.
- Farrugia M., Alkidas A.C., Sangeorzan B.P. (2006). Cycle-averaged heat flux measurements in a straight-pipe extension of the exhaust port of a SI engine. Transactions of SAE, Journal of Engines, Vol. 115, pp. 565-575 [SAE Paper No. 2006-01-1033].
- Sammut G., Alkidas A.C., Relative contributions of intake and exhaust tuning on SI engine breathing - A computational study, presented at SAE World Congress, 2007-01-0492, 2007.
- Heller S., Wachtmeister G. (2007). Analysis and modeling of heat transfer in the SI engine exhaust system during warm-up. Transactions of SAE, Journal of Engines, Vol. 116, pp. 673-686 [SAE Paper No. 2007-01-1092].
- Ranganathan R.P., Turner D.W., Franchett M.E., Exhaust manifold gas temperature predictions using system level data driven modeling, presented at SAE World Congress, 2005-01-0698, 2005.
- Rakopoulos C.D., Hountalas D.T., Mavropoulos G.C., Giakoumis E.G. (1997). An integrated transient analysis simulation model applied in thermal loading calculations of an air-cooled diesel engine under variable speed and load conditions. Transactions of SAE, Journal of Engines, Vol. 106, pp. 923-939 [SAE Paper No. 970634].
- Rakopoulos C.D., Mavropoulos G.C., Hountalas D.T., Modeling the structural thermal response of an air-cooled diesel engine under transient operation including a detailed thermodynamic description of boundary conditions, presented at SAE International Congress & Exposition, 981024, 1998.
- Rakopoulos C.D., Mavropoulos G.C. (1998). Components heat transfer studies in a low heat rejection DI diesel engine using a hybrid thermostructural finite element model. Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 18, pp. 301-316.
- Rakopoulos C.D., Rakopoulos D.C., Mavropoulos G.C., Giakoumis E.G. (2004). Experimental and theoretical study of the short term response temperature transients in the cylinder walls of a Diesel engine at various operating conditions. Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 24, pp. 679–702.
- Rakopoulos C.D., Mavropoulos G.C. (2008). Experimental evaluation of local instantaneous heat transfer characteristics in the combustion chamber of air-cooled direct injection diesel engine. Energy, Vol. 33, pp. 1084–1099.
- Mavropoulos G.C., Rakopoulos C.D., Hountalas D.T., Experimental assessment of instantaneous heat transfer in the combustion chamber and exhaust manifold walls of air-cooled direct injection diesel engine, presented at SAE World Congress, 2008-01-1326, 2008.
- Morel T., Keribar R., Blumberg P., Cyclical thermal phenomena in engine combustion chamber surfaces, presented at SAE International Congress & Exposition, 850360, 1985.
- Beck B.T., Demonstrations of transient conduction heat flux phenomena for the engineering laboratory, presented at 32th ASEE Front. in Educ. Conf., 2002.
- Rakopoulos C.D., Mavropoulos G.C. (1999). Modelling the transient heat transfer in the ceramic combustion chamber walls of a low heat rejection diesel engine. Int. J. of Vehicle Design, Vol. 22, pp. 195-215.
- Welty J.R., Engineering Heat Transfer, John Wiley, New York, 1974.
- Temp. Meas. Handbook, NANMAC, 1997, Vol. VIII.