This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Prediction of Brake System Performance during Race Track/High Energy Driving Conditions with Integrated Vehicle Dynamics and Neural-Network Subsystem Models
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 20, 2009 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
In racetrack conditions, brake systems are subjected to extreme energy loads and energy load distributions. This can lead to very high friction surface temperatures, especially on the brake corner that operates, for a given track, with the most available traction and the highest energy loading. Individual brake corners can be stressed to the point of extreme fade and lining wear, and the resultant degradation in brake corner performance can affect the performance of the entire brake system, causing significant changes in pedal feel, brake balance, and brake lining life. It is therefore important in high performance brake system design to ensure favorable operating conditions for the selected brake corner components under the full range of conditions that the intended vehicle application will place them under.
To address this task in an early design stage, it is helpful to use brake system modeling tools to analyze system performance. Traditional modeling approaches have relied upon simple mathematical representation of measured brake corner output and fluid displacement (data which often result from inertia dyno testing) to predict system level performance. Many brake system analysis tools also include only a quasi-static two-dimensional vehicle dynamics model and do not fully capture cornering influences on braking energy load distribution. This paper will present a method of measuring brake corner output and compliance behavior during high energy usage conditions on a brake dynamometer and representing this behavior with neural network models. The resulting models are integrated with a fully 3-dimensional vehicle dynamics and 1-dimensional brake thermal model to result in significantly more accurate brake system performance predictions that include the vehicle dynamics influences on brake corner energy loading, brake corner responses such as in-stop fade and recovery, and in-stop lining wear and its influence on compliance.
The resultant integrated neural-network brake corner and vehicle dynamics model is demonstrated in both straight-line braking events and simple race track simulations.
CitationAntanaitis, D., Nisonger, R., and Riefe, M., "Prediction of Brake System Performance during Race Track/High Energy Driving Conditions with Integrated Vehicle Dynamics and Neural-Network Subsystem Models," SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-0860, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2009-01-0860.
- Osterlë, W., Griepentrog, M., Gross, Th., Urban, I. “Chemical and Microstructural Changes Induced by Friction and Wear of Brakes”, Wear 251, 1469–1476, 2001.
- Osterlë, W., Kloβ, H., Urban, I., Dmitriev, A. I. “Towards a Better Understanding of Brake Friction Materials”, Wear 263, 1189–1201, 2007.
- Antanaitis, D., Monsere, P., and Riefe, M. “Brake System And Subsystem Design Considerations for Race Track and High Energy Usage based on Fade Limits”, SAE 2008-01-0817
- Barber, A. “Accurate Models for Complex Vehicle Components Using Empirical Methods”, SAE 2000-01-1625
- Gillespie, T. “Using Vehicle Dynamics Simulation as a Teaching Toll in Automotive Engineering Courses”, SAE 2005-01-1795.
- Antanaitis, D., Sanford, J. “The Effect of Racetrack/High Energy Driving Conditions on Brake Caliper Performance”, SAE 2006-01-0472.
- Ebert D., Kaatz R., “Objective Characterization of Vehicle Brake Feel”, SAE 940331, 1994.
- Riefe, M., Yen, E., “Prediction of Brake Lining Life Using an Energy-Based CAE Approach”, SAE 2007-01-1019.
- Johnston, M., Leonard, E., Monsere, P., and Riefe, M., “Vehicle Brake Performance Assessment Using Subsystem Testing and Modeling”, SAE 2005-01-0791.
- Sheridan, D., Kutchey, J., and Farzad, S., “Approaches to the Thermal Modeling of Disc Brakes”, SAE 880256.
- Ryan, J. Neal, M., Mero, J., and Taverna, F., “Design of the Milford Road Course”, SAE 2005-01-0385.