This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Validation and Application of a Methodology to Calculate Head Accelerations and Neck Loading in Soccer Ball Impacts
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 20, 2009 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Calculating head accelerations and neck loading is essential for understanding and predicting head and neck injury. Most of the desired information cannot be directly measured in experiments with human volunteers. Achieving accurate results after applying the necessary transformations from remote measurements is difficult, particularly in the case of a head impact. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for accurately calculating the accelerations at the center of gravity of the head and the loads and moments at the occipital condyles. To validate this methodology in a challenging test condition, twenty (20) human volunteers and a Hybrid III dummy were subjected to forehead impacts from a soccer ball traveling horizontally at speeds up to 11.5 m/s. The human subjects and the Hybrid III were instrumented with linear accelerometers and an angular rate sensor inside the mouth. The dummy was also equipped with accelerometers at the center of gravity of the head and load cells in the upper and lower neck. The force applied to the head by the soccer ball was calculated by double differentiating the ball displacement measured from high speed video. Standard mechanics equations were used to transform mouth accelerations to the head center of gravity and to calculate loads and moments at the occipital condyles. Accurate angular acceleration data were obtained by rigidly mounting a small angular rate sensor inside the mouth on a bite block. The neck loads calculated using inverse dynamics required filtering to a cutoff frequency of 50 Hz in order to reduce the noise to an acceptable level and achieve a good match with the neck load cell data. Noise was a particular problem in the calculated occipital condyle sagittal plane bending moment. Although some differences in the results of the human and dummy tests were observed, The Hybrid III dummy head and neck appeared to be reasonably biofidelic in this loading scenario.
CitationFunk, J., Cormier, J., Bain, C., Guzman, H. et al., "Validation and Application of a Methodology to Calculate Head Accelerations and Neck Loading in Soccer Ball Impacts," SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-0251, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2009-01-0251.
- Mertz, H.J. Patrick, L.M. “Investigation of the Kinematics and Kinetics of Whiplash,” Paper 670919 , Proc 11 th Stapp Car Crash Conf 175 206 1967
- Ewing, C.L. Thomas, D.J. “Torque versus Angular Displacement of Human Head to –Gx Impact Acceleration,” Paper 730976 , Proc 17 th Stapp Car Crash Conf 309 342 1973
- Ono, K. Kaneoka, K. Wittek, A. Kajzer, J. “Cervical Injury Mechanism Based on the Analysis of Human Cervical Vertebral Motion and Head-Neck-Torso Kinematics During Low Speed Rear Impacts,” Paper 973340 , Proc 41 st Stapp Car Crash Conf 339 356 1997
- Vijayakumar, V. Scher, I. Gloeckner, D.C. Pierce, J. Bove, R. Young, D. Cargill, R. “Head Kinematics and Upper Neck Loading During Simulated Low-Speed Rear-End Collisions: A Comparison with Vigorous Activities of Daily Living,” Paper 2006-01-0247 , SAE World Congress 49 60 2006
- Naunheim, R.S. Bayly, P.V. Standeven, J. Neubauer, J.S. Lewis, L.M. Genin, G.M. “Linear and Angular Head Accelerations during Heading of a Soccer Ball,” Med Sci Sports Exercise 35 8 1406 1412 2003
- Schewchenko, N. Withnall, C. Keown, M. Gittens, R. Dvorak, J. “Heading in Football. Part I: Development of Biomechanical Methods to Investigate Head Response,” Br J Sports Med 39 Suppl 1 i10 i25 2005
- Funk, J.R. Cormier, J.M. Bain, C.E. Guzman, H. Bonugli, E. “An Evaluation of Various Neck Injury Criteria in Vigorous Activities,” IRCOBI 233 248 2007
- Funk, J.R. Cormier, J.M. Bain, C.E. Guzman, H. Bonugli, E. “Relationship Between Linear and Rotational Head Acceleration in Various Activities,” Biomed Sci Instrum 44 207 212 2008
- Schneider, L.W. Robbins, D.H. Pflug, M.A. Snyder, R.G. Anthropometry of Motor Vehicle Occupants 1983
- Clauser, C.E. McConville, J.T. Young, J.W. “Weight, Volume, and Center of Mass of Segments of the Human Body.” Wright-patterson AFB, Air Force Systems Command 1 100 1969
- Beier, G. Schuller, E. Schuck, M. Ewing, C.L. Becker, E.D. Thomas, D.J. “Center of Gravity and Moments of Inertia of Human Heads,” IRCOBI 218 228 1980
- Allen, M.E. Weir-Jones, I. Motiuk, D.R. Flewin, K.R. Goring, R.D. Kobetitch, R. Broadhurst, A. “Acceleration Perturbations of Daily Living. A Comparison to ‘Whiplash’,” Spine 19 11 1285 1290 1994
- Naunheim, R.S. Standeven, J. Richter, C. Lewis, L.M. “Comparison of Impact Data in Hockey, Football, and Soccer,” J Trauma 48 5 938 941 2000
- Yoganandan, N. Sances, A. Pintar, F. “Biomechanical Evaluation of the Axial Compressive Responses of the Human Cadaveric and Manikin Necks,” J Biomech Eng 111 250 255 1989