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Tire Mark Analysis of a Modern Passenger Vehicle with Respect to Tire Variation, Tire Pressure and Chassis Control Systems
ISSN: 1946-3995, e-ISSN: 1946-4002
Published April 20, 2009 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Baumann, F., Schreier, H., and Simmermacher, D., "Tire Mark Analysis of a Modern Passenger Vehicle with Respect to Tire Variation, Tire Pressure and Chassis Control Systems," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars – Mech. Syst. 2(1):333-344, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2009-01-0100.
Tire mark analysis is an important factor in accident reconstruction. A precise determination of pre- and postcrash speeds as well as longitudinal and lateral accelerations from tire marks contributes significantly to a reliable accident reconstruction.
Continuous advancements in tire and vehicle technology – in particular with respect to modern control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABS) – raises the question what role tire marks play in accident reconstruction today. Moreover, this accompanies the question to what extent potential interventions by vehicle control systems such as the electronic stability program (ESP®) resp. the electronic stability control (ESC) can be identified in a tire mark. The widespread use of these systems today makes them increasingly important in accident reconstruction.
In response to these questions, as well as how different tire pressures (very low, normal, very high tire pressure) and tire types (summer, winter, run-flat tires) affect tire marks, a modern passenger car was equipped with extensive measuring technology to collect vehicle driving dynamic data. Longitudinally and laterally dynamic driving maneuvers, as well as combinations of both, were carried out systematically on a test track under nearly constant conditions.
ESC control system interventions were strategically triggered for tire mark analysis during highly dynamic evasive maneuvers.
All driving maneuvers were recorded using onboard instrumentation. The tire mark tracks produced were measured and documented photographically.
Based on the correlation of the tire marks to the objective measuring data, important insights were gained concerning circumstances under which tire marks can result from passenger cars, both in laterally and longitudinally dynamic accident scenarios, as well as under the influence of chassis control systems.