This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Occupant Kinematics and Estimated Effectiveness of Side Airbags in Pole Side Impacts Using a Human FE Model with Internal Organs
Published November 03, 2008 by The Stapp Association in United States
Annotation ability available
When a car collides against a pole-like obstacle, the deformation pattern of the vehicle body-side tends to extend to its upper region. A possible consequence is an increase of loading to the occupant thorax. Many studies have been conducted to understand human thoracic responses to lateral loading, and injury criteria have been developed based on the results. However, injury mechanisms, especially those of internal organs, are not well understood. A human body FE model was used in this study to simulate occupant kinematics in a pole side impact. Internal organ parts were introduced into the torso model, including their geometric features, material properties and connections with other tissues. The mechanical responses of the model were validated against PMHS data in the literature. Although injury criterion for each organ has not been established, pressure level and its changes can be estimated from the organ models. Finite element simulations were conducted assuming a case where a passenger vehicle collides against a pole at 29km/h. Occupant kinematics, force-deformation responses and pressure levels were compared between cases with and without side airbag deployment. The results indicated that strain to the ribs and pressure to the organs was smaller with side airbag deployment. The side airbag widened the contact area at the torso, helping to distribute the force to the shoulder, arm and chest. Such distributed force helped generate relatively smaller deformation in the ribs. Furthermore, the side airbag deployment helped restrict the spine displacement. The smaller displacement contributed to lowering the magnitude of contact force between the torso and the door. The study also examined the correlations between the pressure levels in the internal organs, rib deflection, and V*C of chest. The study found that the V*C(t) peak appeared to be synchronized with the organ pressure peak, suggesting that the pressure level of the internal organs could be one possible indicator to estimate their injury risk.
CitationHayashi, S., Yasuki, T., and Kitagawa, Y., "Occupant Kinematics and Estimated Effectiveness of Side Airbags in Pole Side Impacts Using a Human FE Model with Internal Organs," SAE Technical Paper 2008-22-0015, 2008, https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-22-0015.
- Baosong L., Zhengguo W., Huaguang L., Zhihuan Y., and Xiaoyan L. (1996) Studies on the mechanisms of stress wave propagation in the chest subjected to impact and lung injuries. The Journal of Trauma Vol.40, No.3, pp.53-55
- Cavanaugh J.M., Waliko T. J., Malhotra A., Zhu Y., and King A., I., (1990) Biomechanical Response and Injury Tolerance of the Thorax in Twelve Sled Side Impacts. Proc. of the 34rd Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE 902307, pp.23-37
- Cesari D., Ramet M., and Bloch J. (1981) Influence of arm position on thoracic injuries in side impact. Proc. of the 25th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE 811007, pp.893-919
- Haenchen D., Schwarz T., Thomas G., and Zobel R. (2004) Feasible Steps towards Improved Crash Compatibility. Paper number 2004-01-1167, Detroit, World Congress SAE
- Hayashi S., Yasuki T., Yamamae Y., Takahira Y. (2006) A study of side airbag effectiveness in reducing chest injury in car to car side impacts using a human FE model. Proc. of the IRCOBI 2006, pp. 397-400
- Hayamizu N., Watanabe I., Ishihara T., and Miki K., (2003) Measurement of impact response of pig lung. JSME Mie Tokai branch Convention: 94-95.
- Ishikawa T., Nakahira Y., Furukawa K., (2000) Measurement of the Mechanical Properties of the Pig Liver and Spleen, Proc. of the JSME Nagoya, pp209-210.
- Irwin A., Waliko T., Cavanough J., Zhu Y., King A. I., (1993) Displacement Responses of the Shoulder and Thorax in Lateral Sled,. Proc. of the 37th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp.165-173
- Iwamoto M., Kisanuki Y., Watanabe I., Furusu K., Miki K., and Hasegawa J. (2002) Development of a finite element model of the total human model for safety (THUMS) and application to injury reconstruction, Proc. of IRCOBI 2002, pp.31-42
- Kemper A., McNally C., Kennedy E., Manoogian S., Rath A., Ng T., Stitzel J., Smith E., Duma S., and Matsuoka F. (2005) Material properties of human rib cortical bone from dynamic tension coupon testing. Stapp Car Crash Journal Vol.49: pp.199230
- Kimpara H., Lee J.B., Yang K.H., King A.I., Iwamoto M., Watanabe I., and Miki K., (2005) Development of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Chest Model for the 5th Percentile Female. Stapp Car Crash Journal Vol.49:pp.251-269
- Kreuzinger T., Knack S. (2001) Body part study from real life accidents for a new SID (Side Impact Dummy). Paper number 01-441, Proc. of 17th International Technical Conference of the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Amsterdam Netherland
- Lau I. V., Viano D. C., (1986) The Viscous criterion – Bases and Applications of an Injury Severity Index for Soft Tissues,. Proc. of the 30th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE 861882, pp.123-141
- Morris A., Welsh R., Thomas P., and Kirk A. (2005) Head and chest injury outcomes in struck-side crashes. Proc. of the IRCOBI 2005, pp.73-83
- Ruan J.S., El-Jawahari R., Chai L., Barbat S., and Prasad P., (2003) Prediction and Analysis of Human Thoracic Impact Responses and Injuries in Cadaver Impacts using a Full Human Body Finite Element Model. Srapp Car Crash Journal Vol.49:pp.343-366
- Ruan J.S., El-Jawahari R., Barbat S., and Prasad P., (2005) Biomecanical Analysis of Human Abdominal Impact Responses and Injuries through Finite Element Simulations of a Full Human Body Model. Srapp Car Crash Journal Vol.49:pp.343-366
- Ruan J.S., El-Jawahari R., Rouhana S.R., Barbat S., and Prasad P., (2006) Analysis and Evaluation of the Biofidelity of the Human Body Finite Element Model in Lateral Impact Simulations According to ISO-TR9790 Procedures. Stapp Car Crash Journal Vol.49:pp.343-366
- Samaha R.R., and Elliott D.S., (2003) NHTSA Side Impact Reserch: Motivation For Upgraded Test Procedures. Paper number 03-492-O, Proc. of 18th International Technical Conference of the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Nagoya Japan
- Schneider L.W., Robbins D.H., Pflag M.A., and Snyder R.G., (1983) Anthropometry of Mortor Vehicle Occupants, Vol.2, UMTRI-83-53-2, NHTSA
- Tamura A., Omori K., Miki K., Lee J.B., Yang K.H., and King A.I., (2002) Mechanical Characterization of Porcine Abdominal Organs. Stapp Car Crash Journal 46: 55-69.
- Viano D. C., (1989) Biomechanical Response and Injuries in Blunt Lateral Impact. Proc. of the 33rd Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE 892432
- Walilko T.J., Cavanaugh J.M., Zhu Y., and King A. I., (1993) Displacement Responses of the Shoulder and Thorax in Lateral Sled Impacts. Proc. of the 37rd Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE 933124, pp.165-173
- Yang K.H., Hu J., White N.A., King A. I., Chou C.C., and Prasad P., (2006) Development of Numerical Models for Injury Biomechanics Reserch: A review of 50 Years of Publications in the Stapp Car Crash Conference. Stapp Car Crash Journal Vol.50:pp.429-490
- Yamada H., (1970) Mechanical properties of circulatory organs and tissues. Strength of biological materials: 106-113.
- Yoganandan N., Pintar A.F., and Gennarelli A.T. (2005) Evaluation of side impact injuries in vehicles equipped with side airbags. Proc. of IRCOBI 2005, pp.97-108