This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Rear Seat Occupant Safety: Kinematics and Injury of PMHS Restrained by a Standard 3-Point Belt in Frontal Crashes
Published November 03, 2008 by The Stapp Association in United States
Annotation ability available
Very little experimental research has focused on the kinematics, dynamics, and injuries of rear-seated occupants. This study seeks to develop a baseline response for rear-seated post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) in frontal crashes. Three PMHS sled tests were performed in a sled buck designed to represent the interior rear-seat compartment of a contemporary midsized sedan. All occupants were positioned in the right-rear passenger seat and subjected to simulated frontal crashes with an impact speed of 48 km/h. The subjects were restrained by a standard, rear seat, 3-point seat belt. The response of each subject was evaluated in terms of whole-body kinematics, dynamics, and injury. All the PMHS experienced excessive forward translation of the pelvis resulting in a backward rotation of the torso at the time of maximum forward excursion. The three subjects experienced maximum normalized chest deflections of 30%, 45%, and 30%, respectively, and maximum 3 ms clip resultant chest accelerations of 50, 42, and 52 g, respectively. Additionally, each PMHS received at least 13 rib fractures (maximum of 29 fractures), and flexion-tension induced neck injuries initiating in the lower cervical spine (C4-T1). The neck trauma ranged from ligament damage (AIS 1) to complete cervical spine transection (AIS 5).
CitationMichaelson, J., Forman, J., Kent, R., and Kuppa, S., "Rear Seat Occupant Safety: Kinematics and Injury of PMHS Restrained by a Standard 3-Point Belt in Frontal Crashes," SAE Technical Paper 2008-22-0012, 2008, https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-22-0012.
- Adomeit D., Heger A. (1975) Motion sequence criteria and design proposals for restraint devices in order to avoid unfavorable biomechanic conditions and submarining. SAE Paper No. 751146.
- Berg M., Cook L., Corneli H., Vernon D., Dean J. (2000) Effect of seating position and restraint use on injuries to children in motor vehicle crashes. Pediatrics 105: 831-835.
- Braver E., Whitfield R., Ferguson S. (1998) Seating positions and children's risk of dying in motor vehicle crashes. Inj. Prev. 4(3): 181-187.
- Crandall J., Bass C., Pilkey W., Morgan R., Eppinger R., Miller H., Sikorski J. (1997) Thoracic response and injury with belt, driver side air bag, and constant force restractor restraints. Int. Journal of Crashworthiness 2(1): 119-132.
- Cromack J.R., Ziperman H.H. (1975) Three-point belt induced injuries: a comparison between laboratory surrogates and real world accident victims. Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Paper No. 751141.
- Eppinger R. (1989) One the development of a deformation measurement system and its application toward developing mechanically based injury indices. Proc. 32nd Stapp Car Crash Conference.
- Eppinger R., Sun E., Kuppa S., Saul R., (2000) Supplement: Development of improved injury criteria for the assessment of advanced automotive restraint systems – II. U.S. DOT, NHTSA.
- Evans L., Frick M. (1988) Seating position in cars and fatality risk. Am. J. Public Health 78(11): 1456-1458.
- Foret-Bruno J-Y., Trosseille X., Page Y., Huere J-F., Le Coz J-Y., Bendjellal F., Diboine A., Phalempin T., Villeforceix D., Baudrit P., Guillemot H., Colta J-C. (2001) Comparison of thoracic injury risk in frontal car crashes for occupants restrained without belt load limiters and those restrained with 6 kN and 4 kN belt load limiters. Proc. 45th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 205-224.
- Forman J., Lessley D., Kent R., Bostrom O., Pipkorn B.., (2006a) Whole-body kinematic and dynamic response of restrained PMHS in frontal sled tests. Proc. 50th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 299-336.
- Forman J., Lessley D., Shaw C.G., Evans J., Kent R., Rouhana S.W., Prasad P. (2006b) Thoracic response of belted PMHS, the Hybrid III, and the THOR-NT mid-sized male surrogates in low speed, frontal crashes. Proc. 50th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 191-215.
- Forman J., Michaelson J., Kent R., Kuppa S., Bostrom O. (2008) Occupant restraint in the rear seat: ATD responses to standard and pre-tensioning, force-limiting belt restraints. Proc. of 52nd AAAM Conference.
- Glassbrenner D., Carra J., Nichols J., (2004) Recent estimates of safety belt use. Journal of Safety Research 35(2): 237-244.
- Huelke D., Mackay G., Morris A., Bradford M. (1992) Non-head impact cervical spine injuries in frontal car crashes to lap-shoulder belted occupants. SAE Paper No. 920560.
- Kallieris D., Mellander H., Schmidt G., Barz J., Mattern R., (1982) Comparison between frontal impact tests with cadavers and dummies in a simulated true car restrained environment. Proc. 26th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 353-367.
- Kent R., Crandall J., Bolton J., Nusholtz G., Prasad P., Mertz H. (2001) The influence of superficial soft tissues and restraint condition on thoracic skeletal injury prediction. Proc. 45th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 183-204.
- Kent R., Patrie J., Poteau F., Matsuoka F., Mullen C. (2003) Development of an age-dependent thoracic injury criterion for frontal impact restraint loading. Proc. ESV Conference, Paper No. 72.
- Kent R., Henary B., Matsuoka F. (2005) On the fatal crash experience of older drivers. Proc. 49th Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM) Conference, pp. 371-391.
- Kent R., Forman J., Parent D., Kuppa S. (2007) Rear seat occupant protection in frontal crashes and its feasibility. Proc. ESV Conference, Paper No. 07-0386.
- Kuppa S., Eppinger R. (1998) Development of an improved thoracic injury criterion. Proc. 42nd Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 139-153.
- Kuppa S., Saunders J., Fessahaie O. (2005) Rear seat occupant protection in frontal crashes. Proc. ESV Conference, Paper No. 05-0212.
- Kroell C.K., Schneider D.C., Nahum A.M. (1971) Impact tolerance and response of the human thorax II. Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Paper No. 710851.
- Levine R.S., Patrick L.M., Begeman P.C., King A.I. (1978) Effects of quadriceps function on submarining. Proc. 22nd Conference of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine.
- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2005) Traffic safety facts – Research note: Safety belt use in 2005 – Demographic results. Washington, DC.
- Oi N., Pandy M., Myers B., Nightingale R., Chancey V. (2004) Variation of neck muscle strength along the human cervical spine. Proc. 48th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 397-418.
- Paranteau C., Viano D. (2003) Field data analysis of rear occupant injuries part 1: Adults and teenagers. SAE World Congress, SAE Paper No. 2003-01-0153.
- Patrick L.M., Trosien K.R. (1971) Volunteer, anthropometric dummy, and cadaver responses with three and four point restraints. Society of Automotive Engineers, Paper No. 710079.
- Patrick L.M., Andersson A. (1974) Three-point harness accident and laboratory data comparison. Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Paper No. 741181.
- Patrick L.M., Levine R.S. (1975) Injury to unembalmed belted cadavers in simulated collisions. Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Paper No. 751144.
- Reed M., Ebert-Hamilton S., Schneider L. (2005) Development of ATD installation procedures based on rear-seat occupant postures. Proc. 49th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 381-421.
- Rouhana S. (2002) Biomechanics of abdominal trauma. In: Nahum A., Melvin J. (Eds.), Accidental injury: Biomechanics and prevention, pp. 405-453.
- Smith K., Cummings P. (2006) Passenger seating position and the risk of passenger death in traffic crashes: A matched cohort study. Injury Prevention 12: 83-86.
- Tylko S., Dalmotas D. (2005) Protection of rear occupants in frontal crashes. Proc. ESV Conference, Paper Number 05-258.
- Van Ee C., Chasse A., Myers B. (1998) The effect of postmortem time and freezer storage on the mechanical properties of skeletal muscle. SAE Paper No. 983155.
- Van Ee C., Nightingale R., Camacho D., Chancey V., Knaub K., Sun E., Myers B. (2000) Tensile properties of the human muscular and ligamentous cervical spine. Proc. 44th Stapp Car Crash Conference.
- Walz M. (2004) NCAP test improvements with pretensioners and load limiters. NHTSA Report, DOT HS 809-562, Washington, DC.