This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Impact of EGR on Combustion Processes in a Hydrogen Fuelled SI Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 14, 2008 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
With concerns continuing to grow with respect to global warming from greenhouse gases, further regulations are being examined, developed and are expected for the emission of CO2 as an automobile exhaust. Renewable alternate fuels offer the potential to significantly reduce the CO2 impact of transportation. Hydrogen as a spark - ignition (SI) engine fuel provides this potential for significant CO2 reduction when generated from renewable resources. In addition, hydrogen has advantageous combustion properties including a wide flammable mixture range which facilitates lean burning and high dilution, fast combustion energy release and zero CO2 emissions. However, the high burning rates and fast energy release can lead to excessive in-cylinder pressures and temperatures resulting in combustion knock and high NOx emissions at stoichiometric operation.
This work examines external Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) as a technique for the reduction of combustion knock and NOx emissions for stoichiometric operation and studies its impact on combustion rates, efficiency, NOx emissions, and other engine operation characteristics. Tests were performed on a single cylinder CFR engine at 900 rpm at a engine load of 410 kPa NIMEP while maintaining lambda (λ) at 1 (stoichiometric operation). Closed loop EGR was estimated and maintained via wide band oxygen sensors placed in the intake and exhaust manifolds. Tests were performed for compression ratios 8, 10 and 12 and various ignition timings. Combustion durations, engine efficiencies, NOx emissions were measured for varying values of EGR over these compression ratios. Comparative results for these tests are provided.
The results show that even low levels of EGR resulted in longer combustion durations and reduced knock intensities. Efficiencies improved with low levels of EGR as we moved away from the knock limits, then reduced because of the longer combustion timings. EGR dilutes oxygen content in intake which finally reduces the combustion rate. This leads to lower in-cylinder peak temperature resulting in reduction of combustion knock and NOx emissions. EGR levels of 0 to 35% by mass were successfully applied.
CitationNande, A., Szwaja, S., and Naber, J., "Impact of EGR on Combustion Processes in a Hydrogen Fuelled SI Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-1039, 2008, https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-01-1039.
Hydrogen IC Engines, 2008
Number: SP-2186; Published: 2008-04-14
Number: SP-2186; Published: 2008-04-14
- Szwabowski S. J. Hashemi S Stockhausen W. F. Natkin R. J. Reams L Kabat D. M. Potts C. “Ford Hydrogen Engine Powered P2000 Vehicle” SAE paper 2002-01-0243
- Karim, G.A. “Hydrogen as a Spark Ignition Engine Fuel” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 28 569 577 2003
- Alger, T. Gingrich, J. Mangold, B. “The Effect of Hydrogen Enrichment on EGR Tolerance in Spark Ignited Engines” SAE paper 2007-01-0475
- “Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006” California Legislature September 27 2006
- COM 2007 EC Legislation, European Commission February 7 2007
- Al - Alousi, Y. “Examination of the Combustion Processes and Performance of a Spark Ignition engine using a Data Acquisition System” University of Calgary, Mechanical Engineering November 1982
- Shreshta Bade Karim, G. A. Wierzba, I. “Examination of Operational Limits in a Gas Fuelled Spark Ignition Engine” SAE paper 2002-01-1944 1982
- Tang, X. Heffel, J. W. Kabat, K. M. Natkin, R. J. Stockhausen W. F. “FordP2000 Hydrogen Engine Dynamometer Development” SAE paper 2002-01-0242
- Lee, S. J. Yi, H. S. Kim, E. S. “Combustion Characteristics of Intake Port Injection Type Hydrogen Fuelled Engine” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 20. 4 317 322 1995
- Li, H Karim, G. A. “Hydrogen Fuelled Spark Ignition Engines, Predictive and Experimental Performance” Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Transactions of the ASME 28 1 230 236 January 2006
- Heffel, J. W. “NOx Emission Reduction in a Hydrogen Fueled Internal Combustion Engine at 3000 rpm using Exhaust Gas Recirculation” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 28 1285 1292 2003
- Naber, J. D. Bradley, E. K. Szpytman, J. E. “Target Based Rapid Prototyping System for Engine Research” SAE paper 2006-01-0860
- Szwaja, S. Naber, J. D. „Exhaust Gas Recirculation Strategy in the Hydrogen SI Engine” Journal of KONES 2007, European KONES 2007 Congress Warsaw, Poland 2007
- Naber, J. D. Blough, J. R. Frankowski, D. Goble, M. Szpytman, J. E. “Analysis of Combustion Knock Metrics in Spark Ignition Engines” SAE paper 2006-01-0400 2006
- Szwaja S. Bhandary, K. Naber, J., D. “Comparisons of Gasoline and Hydrogen Combustion knock in a Spark Ignition Engine” Int. J. of Hydrogen Energy 2007
- Naber J., D. Szwaja S. “Statistical Approach to Characterize Combustion Knock in a Hydrogen Fueled SI Engine” Journal of KONES 2007, European KONES 2007 Congress Warsaw Poland 2007
- Heywood, J. B. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals McGraw-Hill New York 1988
- Kirtan B. “Characterization of Knock/Pre-ignition and Combustion Study of a Hydrogen Engine” Mechanical Engineering, Michigan Technological University August 2006
- Cooney, C. Yeliana Worm, J. Naber, J.D. “Combustion Characterization in an internal Combustion Engine using Ethanol-Gasoline Blended Fuels Varying Ignition Timing and Compression Ratio,” SAE 08PFL-532 2008
- Verhelst S. Sierens R. “Combustion Studies for PFI Hydrogen Engines” SAE paper 2007-01-3610