This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Assessment of the Pubic Force as a Pelvic Injury Criterion in Side Impact
Published October 29, 2007 by The Stapp Association in United States
Annotation ability available
In the literature, injuries at the ischio or ilio pubic ramus level are reported to occur to approximately ¾ of the occupants injured at the pelvis during side impact. Assuming that the load going through the pubis was a good indicator of the ramus stress, the pubic force was widely accepted as a protection criterion for pelvic fractures on side impact dummies. However, no data regarding the actual loads going through the pubis is currently available in the literature for Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in dynamic conditions.
The goal of this study was to determine pelvic biofidelity specifications in terms of load path, to evaluate the pertinence of the pubic force as a criterion, and to develop a pelvic injury risk curve as a function of the pubic force. For that purpose, a pubic load cell was developed for PMHS use, and 16 side impact tests were performed on 8 PMHS using boundary conditions similar to impactor tests and sled tests reported in the literature. One kind of impact was applied on one side of a subject and the other kind of impact was then applied on the other side of the same subject, at non injury severities. The ratio between the peak external force and the peak pubic force was calculated for each subject, and a mean ratio was then calculated for each of the test conditions. These ratios were finally used to calculate the pubic forces from the external pelvic forces for 90 PMHS side impact test data available in the literature. Injury risk curves as a function of the pubic force were developed from these data.
Two normalized pubic force corridors from the 16 tests are presented, the first one for the impactor tests, the second one for the sled-like tests. The test results show statistically different ratios between the peak external force and the peak pubic force, for the two configurations (an average ratio of 3.3 for impactor tests and 4.6 for sled-like tests). The PMHS injury risk curves based on the external pelvic force were observed to depend on the test conditions (impactor versus sled) while the injury risk curves constructed using the calculated pubic load were not. Therefore, the pubic force is considered as a more pertinent injury criterion for pure lateral impact.
- Tiphaine Leport - Ceesar, Nanterre, France Address correspondence to Tiphaine Leport, CEESAR, 132 rue des Suisses, 92000 Nanterre - France. Electronic mail: email@example.com
- Pascal Baudrit - Ceesar, Nanterre, France Address correspondence to Tiphaine Leport, CEESAR, 132 rue des Suisses, 92000 Nanterre - France. Electronic mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Guy Vallancien - Université René Descartes, Paris, France
- Xavier Trosseille - LAB PSA Peugeot-Citroën Renault, Nanterre, France
- Philippe Petit - LAB PSA Peugeot-Citroën Renault, Nanterre, France
- Anna Palisson - LAB PSA Peugeot-Citroën Renault, Nanterre, France
CitationLeport, T., Baudrit, P., Trosseille, X., Petit, P. et al., "Assessment of the Pubic Force as a Pelvic Injury Criterion in Side Impact," SAE Technical Paper 2007-22-0019, 2007, https://doi.org/10.4271/2007-22-0019.
- Bouquet R. Ramet M. 1994 Thoracic and pelvis human responses to impact Proc. ESV1994 Munich
- Bouquet R. Ramet M. Bermond F. Caire Y. Talantikite Y. Robin S. Voiglio E. 1998 Pelvic human response to lateral impact Proc 16th ESV 1665 1686
- Cavanaugh J. Walilko T. Malhotra A. Zhu Y. King A. 1990 Biomechanical response and injury tolerance of the pelvis in twelve sled side impacts Proc. 34th Stapp Car Crash Conference 1 12 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Cesari D. Ramet M. Clair P. Y. 1980 Evaluation of pelvic fracture tolerance in side impact Proc. 24th Stapp Car Crash Conference 231 253 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Cesari D. Ramet M. 1982 Pelvic tolerance and protection criteria in side impact Proc. 26th Stapp Car Crash Conference 145 155 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Cesari D. Ramet M. Bouquet R. 1983 Tolerance of human pelvis to fracture and proposed pelvic protection criterion to be measured on side impact dummies Proc. 9th ESV 261 269
- Eppinger R. Marcus J. Morgan R. 1984 Development of dummy and injury index for NHTSA's thoracic side impact protection research program SAE Technical Paper 840885 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA.
- Evans F. Gaynor 1973 Mechanical Properties of Bone Charles C. Thomas Publisher Springfield, Illinois
- Guillemot H. Besnault B. Robin S. Got C. LeCoz J. Y. Lavaste F. Lassau J. P. 1997 Pelvic injuries in side impact collisions: an accidental analysis and dynamic tests on isolated pelvic bones Proc. 41th Stapp Car Crash Conference 91 100 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Guillemot H. 1997 Etude biomecanique du bassin en choc lateral automobile Memoire de these ENSAM Paris
- Guillemot H. Cuny S. 2005 Lésions du bassin chez les occupants d'automobiles Proc. Canadian Miltidisciplinary Road Safety Conference XV Fredericton, Canada
- Haffner M. 1985 Synthesis of pelvic fracture criteria for lateral impact loading Proc. 9th ESV 132 152
- ISO TR9790: Road vehicles - Anthropomorphic side impact dummy - Lateral impact response requirements to asses the biofidelity of the dummy, Document N455 - Revision 4 1997
- ISO TR12350: Road vehicles - Injury risk curves to evaluate occupant protection in side impact
- Kallieris D. Mattern R. Schmidt G. Eppinger R. 1981 Quantification of side impact responses and injuries Proc. 25th Stapp Car Crash Conference 329 366 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA.
- Kuppa S. Eppinger R. Maltese M. Pintar F. Yoganandan N. Saul R. McFadden J. 2000 Assessment of thoracic injury criteria for side impact Proc. IIROCBI 2000 Montpellier France
- Kuppa S. Eppinger R. McKoy F. Nguyen T. Pintar F. Yoganandan N. 2003 Development of side impact thoracic injury criteria and their application to the modified ES-2 dummy with rib extensions (ES-2re) Proc. 47th Stapp Car Crash Conference 189 210 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA.
- Maltese M. Eppinger R. Rhule H. Donnelly B. Pintar F. Yoganandan N. 2002 Response corridors of human surrogates in lateral impacts Proc. 46th Stapp Car Crash Conference 321 351 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA.
- Marcus J. Morgan R. Eppinger R. Kallieris D. Mattern R. Schmidt G. 1983 Human Response to and Injury from Lateral Impact Proc. 27th Stapp Car Crash Conference 419 432 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA.
- Mertz H. 1984 A procedure for normalization impact response data SAE Paper 840884 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Mertz H. Prasad P. Nusholtz G. 1996 Head Injury Risk Assessment for Forehead Impacts SAE paper 960099 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Nusholtz G. Kaiker P. 1986 Pelvic Stress Journal of biomechanics 19 12 1003 1014
- Pintar F. Yoganandan N. Hines M. Maltese M. McFadden J. Saul R. Eppinger R. Khaewpong N. Kleinberg M. 1997 Chestband analysis of human tolerance to side impact Proc. 41th Stapp Car Crash Conference 63 74 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA.
- Robbins D. Schneider L. Snyder R. Pflug M. Haffner M. 1983 Seated posture of vehicle occupants Proc. 27th Stapp Car Crash Conference 199 224 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA.
- Song E. Trosseille X. Guillemot H. 2006 Side Impact: Influence of Impact Conditions and Bone Mechanical Properties on Pelvic Response Using a Fracturable Pelvis Model Proc. 50th Stapp Car Crash Conference 75 95 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA.
- Viano D. 1989 Biomechanical responses and injuries in blunt lateral impact Proc. 33th Stapp Car Crash Conference 113 141 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA.
- Yamada H. 1970 Strength of biological materials In Evans FG Williams Wilkins Baltimore
- Zhu J. Cavanaugh J. King I. 1993 Pelvic biomechanical response and padding benefits in side impact based on a cadaveric test series Proc. 37th Stapp Car Crash Conference 223 233 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA.