This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
The Effect of Oil Drain Interval on Valvetrain Friction and Wear
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 29, 2007 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Engine oils are subjected to a series of industry standard engine dynamometer tests to measure their wear protection capability, sludge and varnish formation tendencies, and fuel efficiency among several other performance attributes before they are approved for use in customer engines. However, these performance attributes are measured at the end of tests and therefore, do not provide any information on how the properties have changed during the tests. In one of our previous studies it was observed that engine oil samples collected from fleet vehicles after 12,000 mile drain interval showed 10-15 % lower friction and more importantly, an order of magnitude lower wear rate than those of fresh oils. It was also observed that the composition of the tribochemical films formed was quite different on the surface tested with the drain oils from those formed with fresh oils. The objective of this investigation is to demonstrate how the friction and wear performance changed with oil drain intervals. A fleet of three vehicles was run in Las Vegas and oil samples were collected at various drain intervals from 3000 miles to 15000 miles. As in the previous study, the results showed that the aged engine oils provide lower friction and much improved wear protection capability. These improvements were observed as early as the 3000 mile drain interval and continued to the 15000 mile drain interval. The composition of tribochemical films formed on the surface with the 3000 mile drain interval is similar to that formed with the 12000 mile drain interval as seen before. These findings could be an enabler for achieving longer drain interval although several other factors must to be considered.
CitationGangopadhyay, A., Carter, R., Uy, D., Simko, S. et al., "The Effect of Oil Drain Interval on Valvetrain Friction and Wear," SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-4133, 2007, https://doi.org/10.4271/2007-01-4133.
- Rounds, F.G., “Some factors affecting the decomposition of three commercial zinc organodithiophosphates”, ASLE Transactions, 1975, 18 (2), pp.79-89.
- Fujita, H., Glovnea, R.P., and Spikes, H.A., “Study of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate antiwear film formation and removal processes, part I: Experimental”, Trib. Trans., 2005, 48, pp.558-566.
- Taylor, I., Dratva, A, and Spikes, H.A., “Friction and wear behavior of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate additive”, Trib. Trans., 2000, 43(3), pp.469-79.
- Kasrai, M., Fuller, M.S., Bancroft, G.M., Yamaguchi, E.S., and Ryason, P.R., “X-ray absorption study of the effect of calcium sulfonate on antiwear film formation generated from neutral and basic ZDDPs: Part I - phosphorous species”, Trib. Trans. 2003, 46(4), pp.534-542.
- Zhang, Z., Yamaguchi, E.S., Yu. L., Kasrai, M., and Bancroft. G.M., “Effects of Mo-containing dispersants on the function of ZDDP: Chemistry and Tribology”, Trib. Trans. In press
- Willermet, P.A., Dailey, D.P., Carter R.O. III,, Schmitz, P.J., Zhu, W., Bell, J.C., and Park, D., “The composition of lubricant derived surface layers formed in a lubricated cam/tappet contact II. Effects of adding overbased detergent and dispersant to a sample of ZDDP solution”, Trib. Intl., 1995, 28(3), pp.163-175.
- Willermet, P.A., Carter R.O. III,, Schmitz, P.J., Everson, M., Scholl, D.J., and Weber, W.H., “Formation, structure, and properties of lubricants derived antiwear films”, Lub. Sci., 1997, 9(4), pp.325-348.
- Willermet, P.A., Pieprzak, J.M., Dailey, D.P., Carter R.O. III,, Lindsay, N.E., and Haack. L. P, “The composition of surface layers in a lubricated cam/tappet contact”, J. of Trib., 1991, 113, pp.38-47.
- Nicholls, M.A., Do, T., Norton, P.R., Kasrai, M., and Bancroft, G.M., “Review of the lubrication of metallic surfaces by zinc dialkyl-dithiophosphates”, Trib. Intl., 2005, 38, pp.15-39.
- Spikes, H., “The history and mechanisms of ZDDP”, Trib. Lett., 2004, 17(3), pp.469-489
- Coy, R.C., and Jones, R.B., “The Thermal Degradation and EP Performance of Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate Additives in White Oil”, ASLE Transactions, 1981, 24, pp.77-90.
- Bouchet, M.B., Martin, J.M., Mogne, Th.Le., Bilas, P., Vacher, B., and Yamada, Y., “Mechanisms of MoS2 formation by MoDTC in presence of ZnDTP: effect of oxidative degradation”, Wear, 258(3), pp.1643-1650, 2005.
- Johnson, M.D., Korcek, S., Jensen, R.K., Gangopadhyay, A.K., and Soltis, E.A., “Laboratory assessment of the oxidation and wear performance capabilities of low phosphorous engine oils”, SAE 2001-01-3541.
- Gao, H., McQueen, J.S., Black, E.D., Gangopadhyay, A.K., and Jensen, R.K., “Reduced phosphorous concentration effects on tribological performance of passenger car engine oils”, Tribology Transactions, 47, 2004, pp.200-207.
- Moon, S-K, and Kimura, Y., “Wear Preventing Property of Used Gasoline Engine Oils”, Wear, 139, pp.351-365, 1990.
- Kawamura, M., Fujita, K., and Ninomiya, K, “The Lubricating Properties of Used Engine Oil”, Wear, 77, pp.195-202, 1982.
- Gangopadhyay, A.K., Carter, R.O. III, Simko, S., Gao, H., Bjornen, K.K., and Black, E.D., “Valvetrain friction and wear with low phosphorous fresh and used engine oils”, Tribology Transactions, Vol. 50, 3, pp350-360, 2007.
- Benchaita, M.T., and Lockwood, F.E., “A reliable friction model of lubricant-related friction in internal combustion engines”, Lubrication Science, 5, pp259-280, 1993.
- Giasson, S., Palermo, T., Buffeteau, T., Desbat, B., and Turlet, J.M., “Study of Boundary Film Formation with Overbased Calcium sulfonate by PM-IRRAS Spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 252, 1994, pp.111-119.
- Uy, D., Simko, S.J., O'Neill, A.E., Jensen, R.K., Gangopadhyay, A.K., and Carter R.O. III,, “Raman Characterization of Anti-Wear Films Formed from Fresh and Aged Engine Oils”, SAE Tech. Paper 2006-01-1099.
- O'Neill, A.E., Uy, D., Jagner, M., “Characterization of phosphates found in vehicle-aged exhaust gas catalysts: A Raman study”, SAE 2006-01-0410.
- Sommer, A.J. and Leidheiser H. Jr.,, “Characterization of phosphate conversion conatings by laser Raman spectroscopy”, Microbeam Analysis - 1984, pp. 111-114.
- Sze, S.-K., Siddique, N., Sloan, J.J., and Escribano, R., “Raman spectroscopic characterization of carbonaceous aerosols”, Atmos. Environ., 35, pp. 561-568, 2001.