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Low Volatility ZDDP Technology: Part 2 - Exhaust Catalysts Performance in Field Applications
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 29, 2007 by SAE International in United States
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Phosphorus is known to reduce effectiveness of the three-way catalysts (TWC) commonly used by automotive OEMs. This phenomenon is referred to as catalyst deactivation. The process occurs as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) decomposes in an engine creating many phosphorus species, which eventually interact with the active sites of exhaust catalysts. This phosphorous comes from both oil consumption and volatilization. Novel low-volatility ZDDP is designed in such a way that the amounts of volatile phosphorus species are significantly reduced while their antiwear and antioxidant performances are maintained.
A recent field trial conducted in New York City taxi cabs provided two sets of “aged” catalysts that had been exposed to GF-4-type formulations. The trial compared fluids formulated with conventional and low-volatility ZDDPs. Results of field test examination were reported in an earlier paper (1). As a part of our current examinations, Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) emissions tests were conducted. Emissions data collected showed a statistically significant difference in 50% hydrocarbon (HC) efficiency light-off time, on low impact ZDDP as compared to conventional ZDDP, and an even greater effect on nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions due to a reduction in the phosphorus-derived catalyst deactivation.
- Ewa A. Bardasz - The Lubrizol Corporation
- Elizabeth Schiferl - The Lubrizol Corporation
- William Nahumck - The Lubrizol Corporation
- Jack Kelley - The Lubrizol Corporation
- Lewis Williams - The Lubrizol Corporation
- Carolyn P. Hubbard - Ford Motor Company
- Eva Thanasiu - Ford Motor Company
- Mark Jagner - Ford Motor Company
- Ann O'Neill - Ford Motor Company
- Dairene Uy - Ford Motor Company
CitationBardasz, E., Schiferl, E., Nahumck, W., Kelley, J. et al., "Low Volatility ZDDP Technology: Part 2 - Exhaust Catalysts Performance in Field Applications," SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-4107, 2007, https://doi.org/10.4271/2007-01-4107.
- Bardasz, E.A., Schiferl, E., Nahumck, W., Kelley, J., Williams, L., Riley, M. and Hubbard, C.P. (2007) “Low Volatility ZDDP Technology: Part 1 - Engines and Lubricant Performance in Field Applications” SAE Technical Paper 2007011990 (JSAE 20077288), SAE, Warrendale, PA.
- Rokosz, M.J., Chen, A.E., Lowe-Ma, C.K, Kucherov, A.V., Benson, D., Papura Peck, M.C. and McCabe, R.W. (2001) “Characterization of Phosphorus-Poisoned Automotive Exhaust Catalysts” Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 33, p205.
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- Roby, S.H. and Supp, J.A. (1997), “Effects of Ashless Antiwear Agents on Valve Train Wear and Sludge Formation in Gasoline Engine Testing,” Lubr. Eng., 53, 12, pp 17-22.
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- WallFahrer, U. and Bowen, L. (1997), “Low ZDDP High Performance Semisynthetic Automotive Engine Oils Using Polymer Esters as an Antiwear Booster,” Lubr. Eng., 53, 12, pp 23-28.
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- Hepburn, J.S. (1996), “The Pulse Flame Combustor Revisited”, SAE Technical Paper 962118, SAE, Warrendale, PA.
- Ford internal report (2002).
- Xu, L., McCabe, R.W., Hubbard, C.P., Dennis, R.M., Tabron, J.M. and Norman, K.R. (2007) “Impact of Oil Consumption Modes and Pathways on Oil-Derived Catalyst Deposits”, SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1072, SAE, Warrendale, PA.
- O'Neill, A.E., Uy, D. and Jagner, M.J. (2006) “Characterization of Phosphates Found in Vehicle-Aged Exhaust Gas Catalysts: A Raman Study” SAE Technical Paper SAE 2006-01-0410, SAE, Warrendale, PA.
- O'Neill, A., Uy, D., Jagner, M. And Lowe-Ma, C. (2005) “Synthesis, Identification and Stability of Phosphates Found in Vehicle-Aged Exhaust Gas Catalysts”, Ford Internal Technical Report, SRR-2005-0121.
- CFR, Title 40, Part 86