This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
The Effect of Age and Gender on the Three-Dimensional Kinematics of the Pediatric Cervical Spine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published June 12, 2007 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Spine kinematics information can have important implications for biomechanical model development, anthropomorphic test device development, injury prevention, surgical treatment and safety equipment design. There is a paucity of data of this type available for children. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age and gender on the three-dimensional kinematics of the pediatric cervical spine. Sixty subjects from the pediatric population were recruited and divided into groups based on gender and age (young group age 4-10 years and older group age 11-17 years). Subjects actively moved their head in axial rotation, lateral bending and flexion-extension. An optoelectronic motion analysis system recorded the position of infrared markers placed on the first thoracic vertebrae (T1) and on tight-fitting headgear worn by subjects. Helical axis of motion (HAM) parameters were calculated for the head with respect to T1. Young females had a more lateral HAM location in lateral bending and a more anterior HAM location in flexion-extension and axial rotation compared to the older children. The HAM orientation of young females in lateral bending was tilted to the right, whereas the older children were tilted to the left. The variation in spine mechanics of young females found in the present study may indicate general trends that would grow stronger in even younger children.
- A. Perdios - University of British Columbia and Children & Women's Hospital, Vancouver, B.C.
- S. Tredwell - University of British Columbia and Children & Women's Hospital, Vancouver, B.C.
- K. Mulpuri - University of British Columbia and Children & Women's Hospital, Vancouver, B.C.
- M. Cluff - Synaptic Analysis Consulting Group, Vancouver, B.C.
- C. Y. Greaves - Synaptic Analysis Consulting Group, Vancouver, B.C.
- A. Melnyk - Synaptic Analysis Consulting Group, Vancouver, B.C.
- L.L. Greaves - University of British Columbia
- Q. Zhu - University of British Columbia
- P. A. Cripton - University of British Columbia
CitationGreaves, L., Zhu, Q., Cripton, P., Cluff, M. et al., "The Effect of Age and Gender on the Three-Dimensional Kinematics of the Pediatric Cervical Spine," SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-2495, 2007, https://doi.org/10.4271/2007-01-2495.
SAE 2007 Transactions Journal of Passenger Cars: Electronic and Electrical Systems
Number: V116-7; Published: 2008-08-15
Number: V116-7; Published: 2008-08-15
- BUCKLEY, S.L. GOTSCHALL, C. ROBERTSON, W. Jr STURM, P. TOSI, L. THOMAS, M. EICHELBERGER, M. The relationships of skeletal injuries with trauma score, injury severity score, length of hospital stay, hospital charges, and mortality in children admitted to a regional pediatric trauma center J Pediatr Orthop 14 449 53 1994
- CASTRO, W.H. SAUTMANN, A. SCHILGEN, M. SAUTMANN, M. Noninvasive three-dimensional analysis of cervical spine motion in normal subjects in relation to age and sex. An experimental examination Spine 25 443 9 2000
- D'AMATO, C. Pediatric spinal trauma: injuries in very young children Clin Orthop Relat Res 34 40 2005
- NUCKLEY D.J. On the Developmental Biomechanics of the Spine University of Washington 2002
- DVIR, Z. GAL-ESHEL, N. SHAMIR, B. PRUSHANSKY, T. PEVZNER, E. PERETZ, C. Cervical motion in patients with chronic disorders of the cervical spine: a reproducibility study Spine 31 E394 9 2006
- DVORAK, J. ANTINNES, J.A. PANJABI, M. LOUSTALOT, D. BONOMO, M. Age and gender related normal motion of the cervical spine Spine 17 S393 8 1992
- DVORAK, J. PANJABI, M.M. NOVOTNY, J.E. ANTINNES, J.A. In vivo flexion/extension of the normal cervical spine J Orthop Res 9 828 34 1991
- FESMIRE, F.M. LUTEN, R.C. The pediatric cervical spine: developmental anatomy and clinical aspects J Emerg Med 7 133 42 1989
- HADLEY, M.N. ZABRAMSKI, J.M. BROWNER, C.M. REKATE, H. SONNTAG, V.K. Pediatric spinal trauma. Review of 122 cases of spinal cord and vertebral column injuries J Neurosurg 68 18 24 1988
- IRWIN, A. MERTZ, H.J. Biomechanical basis for the CRABI and Hybrid III child dummies Proceedings 41 st Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE paper no. 973317 Society of Automotive Engineers 1997
- KINZEL, G.L. HALL, A.S. Jr HILLBERRY, B.M. Measurement of the total motion between two body segments. I. Analytical development J Biomech 5 93 105 1972
- KOKOSKA, E.R. KELLER, M.S. RALLO, M.C. WEBER, T.R. Characteristics of pediatric cervical spine injuries J Pediatr Surg 36 100 5 2001
- LEE, S.W. DRAPER, E.R. HUGHES, S.P. Instantaneous center of rotation and instability of the cervical spine. A clinical study Spine 22 641 7 647 8 1997
- MAYER, T. BRADY, S. BOVASSO, E. POPE, P. GATCHEL, R.J. Noninvasive measurement of cervical tri-planar motion in normal subjects Spine 18 2191 5 1993
- MCCALL, T. FASSETT, D. BROCKMEYER, D. Cervical spine trauma in children: a review Neurosurg Focus 20
- MERTZ H. PATRICK L. Strength and response of the human neck Proceedings 15 th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE paper no. 710855 Society of Automotive Engineers 1971
- OGDEN, J.G.T.S.J.N.P.H.D. Development and Maturation of the Axial Skeleton The Pediatric Spine: Principles and Practice New York Raven Press 1994
- RUGE, J.R. SINSON, G.P. MCLONE, D.G. CERULLO, L.J. Pediatric spinal injury: the very young J Neurosurg 68 25 30 1988
- TROTT, P.H. PEARCY, M.J. RUSTON, S.A. FULTON, I. BRIEN, C. Three-dimensional analysis of active cervical motion: the effect of age and gender Clin Biomech Bristol, Avon 11 201 206 1996
- VAN RATINGEN, M.R. TWISK, D. SCHROOTEN, M. BEUSENBERG, M.C. BARNES, A. PLATTEN, G. Biomechanically based design and performance targets for a 3 year old child crash dunny for frontal and side impact Proceedings 41 st Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE paper no. 973316 Society of Automotive Engineers 1997
- VITALE, M.G. GOSS, J.M. MATSUMOTO, H. ROYE, D.P. Jr Epidemiology of pediatric spinal cord injury in the United States: years 1997 and 2000 J Pediatr Orthop 26 745 9 2006
- WOLTRING, H.J. LONG, K. OSTERBAUER, P.J. FUHR, A.W. Instantaneous helical axis estimation from 3-D video data in neck kinematics for whiplash diagnostics J Biomech 27 1415 32 1994