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The Use of Small Engines as Surrogates for Research in Aftertreatment, Combustion, and Fuels
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published November 13, 2006 by SAE International in United States
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In this research, small, single cylinder engines have been used to simulate larger engines in the areas of aftertreatment, combustion, and fuel formulation effects. The use of small engines reduces overall research cost and allows more rapid experiments to be run. Because component costs are lower, it is also possible to investigate more variations and to sacrifice components for materials characterization and for subsequent experiments. Using small engines in this way is very successful in some cases. In other cases, limitations of the engines influence the results and need to be accounted for in the experimental design and data analysis. Some of the results achieved or limitations found may be of interest to the small engine market, and this paper is offered as a summary of the authors' research in these areas.
Research is being conducted in two areas. First, small engines are being used to study the rapid aging and poisoning of exhaust aftertreatment catalysts. This research includes diesel oxidation catalysts, lean NOx traps, and diesel particulate filters. Where necessary, additional bench reactor experiments have been added for more precise evaluation of the surrogate engine aged catalysts. The surrogate tests have been matched to the applications by scaling total lube oil consumption and space velocity and by compared to field service catalysts in order to compare mechanisms and rates of deterioration.
On the engine side, the authors have converted both gasoline and diesel engines to homogeneous charge compression ignition for studying fuel chemistry and fuel property effects on advanced combustion. In this research, combustion phasing is controlled by combinations of valve timing, intake air heating, and compression ratio. Combustion is found to be a combination of low temperature and high temperature heat release and combustion behavior tracks mainly to traditional fuel properties such as cetane or octane, with some effects from more detailed chemical composition.
- Bruce G. Bunting - Oak Ridge National Laboratory
- James P. Szybist - Oak Ridge National Laboratory
- Todd J. Toops - Oak Ridge National Laboratory
- Ke Nguyen - The University of Tennessee
- Scott J. Eaton - The University of Tennessee
- Adam D. Youngquist - The University of Tennessee
- Ajit Gopinath - The University of Tennessee
CitationBunting, B., Szybist, J., Toops, T., Nguyen, K. et al., "The Use of Small Engines as Surrogates for Research in Aftertreatment, Combustion, and Fuels," SAE Technical Paper 2006-32-0035, 2006, https://doi.org/10.4271/2006-32-0035.
- Bunting B.G. More K.L. Lewis S.A. Toops T.J. “Phosphorous Poisoning and Phosphorous Exhaust Chemistry with Diesel Oxidation Catalysts” SAE Paper 2005-01-1758
- Bunting B.G. Nguyen K. “The Development of Rapid Aging and Poisoning Protocols for the Verification of Combustion Engine Aftertreatment Devices” SAE Vietnam paper 007, International Conference on Automotive Technology for Vietnam October 2005 Hanoi, Vietnam
- Eaton S.J. Nguyen K. Bunting B.G. “Deactivation of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts by Oil Derived Phosphorous” SAE Paper 2006-01-3422
- Kim H. Nguyen K. Bunting B.G. Toops T.J. Yoon C. “Rapid Aging of Diesel Lean NO x Traps through High Temperature Thermal Cycling” SAE paper submitted for SAE 2007 World Congress
- Bunting B.G. Szybist J.P. “The Effects of Fuel Chemistry and Property Variations on HCCI Combustion in a Variable Compression Ratio Engine” SAE paper submitted for SAE 2007 World Congress
- Bunting B.G. “Combustion, Control, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Engine Equipped with Variable Valve Timing” SAE paper 2006-01-0872
- Farrell J.T. Bunting B.G. “Fuel Composition Effects at Constant RON and MON in a Recompression HCCI Engine” SAE Paper 2006-01-3275
- Szybist J.P. Bunting B.G. “Cetane Number and Engine Speed Effects on Diesel HCCI Performance and Emissions” SAE paper 2005-01-1758
- Lewis S.A. Storey J.M. Bunting B.G. Szybist J.P. “Partial Oxidation Products and Other Hydrocarbon Species in Diesel HCCI Engine Exhaust” SAE paper 2005-01-3737
- Bunting B.G. “Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on Diesel HCCI Performance, Combustion, and Emissions” SAE Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Symposium Lund, Sweden September 2005
- Bunting B.G. Wildman C.B. Szybist J.P. Lewis S.A. Storey J.M “Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on Diesel HCCI Performance, Combustion, and Emissions” International Journal of Engine Research 2006