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Identification of the Most Frequent Accident Scenarios at Junctions: A Tool for Inferring the Right Countermeasures
Published October 22, 2006 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The PReVENT-INTERSAFE European objective is to improve road safety by reducing or avoiding in the future, the number of road accidents at junctions with the help of technologies. INTERSAFE has started by a thorough understanding of accidents under study. Accident analyses were carried out in the United Kingdom, Germany, and in France by accident experts' teams upon accident data available in these countries. The purpose of this paper is to report about the accidentology work done for this INTERSAFE project.
The work was carried out according to a 3-step schedule:
- First a statistical analysis provides INTERSAFE with an overview of the magnitude and the conditions under which accidents at crossings and intersections occur. For example, injury accidents at junctions represent 30% of the injury accidents in France, 61% in the UK and 42% in Germany whereas fatalities at junctions represent 16% of the fatalities in France, 36% in the UK and 21% in Germany.
- Second, the most relevant accident situations are defined upon the pre-accidental maneuvers: - A vehicle A is pulling out of a road with a road sign (mainly a stop sign) whereas another vehicle B is coming from the right of from the left on the right-of-way road. - A vehicle A is coming up to an intersection with right-of-way whereas another vehicle B is pulling out of the intersection from the right or from the left. - A vehicle A is pulling out of a road with a road sign (mainly a stop sign) and turning left whereas another vehicle B is coming from the left on the perpendicular road. - A vehicle A is coming up to an intersection with right-of-way whereas another vehicle B is pulling out of the intersection from the right and is turning left or right. - A vehicle A is turning left whereas another vehicle B is on the opposite direction on the same road.
These situations represent 60-70% of injury accidents at junctions depending on the country.
Thirdly, distributions of the main pre-crash parameters are established for each situation and the main aspects of each scenario (i.e., type of driver failure or vehicle speed before the rupture phase, or drivers' reactions) can be inferred from these distributions.
All these in-depth informations can then be used by engineers to address the right safety problems at junctions.