This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Highly Turbocharging a Restricted, Odd Fire, Two Cylinder Small Engine - Design, Lubrication, Tuning and Control
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published December 05, 2006 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
This paper describes the mechanical component design, lubrication, tuning and control aspects of a restricted, odd fire, highly turbocharged (TC) engine for Formula SAE competition. The engine was specifically designed and configured for the purpose, being a twin cylinder inline arrangement with double overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder. Most of the engine components were specially cast or machined from billets.
A detailed theoretical analysis was completed to determine engine specifications and operating conditions. Results from the analysis indicated a new engine design was necessary to sustain highly TC operation. Dry sump lubrication was implemented after initial oil surge problems were found with the wet sump system during vehicle testing. The design and development of the system is outlined, together with brake performance effects for the varying systems.
Tuning an odd fire engine with an intake restriction and upstream throttle location was explored together with varying injector locations and manifold geometry. To improve engine efficiency, turbocharging and specific engine downsizing were employed in conjunction with a lean burn strategy at low brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). This engine package and tuning strategy resulted in the Melbourne University Formula SAE vehicle being very successful in competition, finishing first in the fuel economy event at the 2004 Australasian competition. Peak BMEP values of 25 bar, believed to be the highest recorded for small engines on pump gasoline were also achieved.
CitationAttard, W., Watson, H., and Konidaris, S., "Highly Turbocharging a Restricted, Odd Fire, Two Cylinder Small Engine - Design, Lubrication, Tuning and Control," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3637, 2006, https://doi.org/10.4271/2006-01-3637.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|Unnamed Dataset 1|
- ATTARD, W. ‘Design, Performance and Analysis of a Downsized Highly Turbocharged 0.45L Formula SAE Engine’ Mech. Eng. Dept., Univ. of Melbourne 2006
- ATTARD, W. WATSON, H.C. ‘Development of a 430cc Constant Power Engine for FSAE Competition’ SAE paper 2006-01-0745 2006
- ATTARD, W. WATSON, H.C. KONIDARIS, S. KHAN, M. ‘Comparing the Performance and Limitations of a Downsized Formula SAE engine in Normally Aspirated, Supercharged and Turbocharged Modes’ SAE paper 2006-32-0072 2006
- MILIKEN, W.F. MILIKEN, D.L. ‘Race Car Vehicle Dynamics’ 1-56091-526-9 2005
- KARAGOUNIS, T. STRAUS, ‘Development of a 90 bhp Turbocharged Engine for use in Formula SAE-A’ Mech.Eng. Dept, Univ. of Melbourne 2002
- LAKE, T. STOKES, J. MURPHY, R. OSBORNE, R. SCHAMEL, A. ‘Turbocharging Concepts for Downsized DI Gasoline Engines’ SAE paper 2004-01-0036 2004
- LECOINTE, B. MONNIER, G. ‘Downsizing a Gasoline Engine Using Turbocharging with Direct Injection’ SAE paper 2003-01-0542 2003
- PETITJEAN, D. BERNARDINI, L. MIDDLEMASS, C. SHAHED, S.M. ‘Advanced Gasoline Engine Turbocharging Technology for Fuel Economy Improvements’ SAE paper 2004-01-0988 2004
- WATSON, H.C. MILKINS, E.E. ROBERTS, K. BRYCE, W. ‘Turbocharging for Fuel Efficiency SAE paper 830014 1983
- ROSENKRANZ, H.G. WATSON, H.C. BRYCE, W. LEWIS, A. ‘Driveability fuel consumption and emissions of 1.3 litre turbocharged spark ignition engine developed as a replacement for a 2 litre normally aspirated engine.’ Proc. I.Mech.E., C118/86 1986
- ROSENKRANZ, H.G. WATSON, H.C. ‘Performance Comparison of Ceramic and Conventional Turbines in the Turbocharger of a 1.3L S.I. Engine’ Mech.Eng. Dept., Univ. of Melbourne Report T73/85 1985
- ATTARD, W. WATSON, H.C. STRYKER, P. ‘Design and Development of a Gasketless Cylinder Head/Block Interface for an Open Deck, Multi Cylinder, Highly Turbocharged Small Engine’ SAE paper 2006-32-0036 2006
- ATTARD, W. WATSON, H.C. KONIDARIS, S. ‘Highly Turbocharging a Restricted Two Cylinder Small Engine - Turbocharger Development’ SAE paper 07PFL-157 2007
- WATSON, N. JANOTA, M.S. ‘Turbocharging the Internal Combustion Engine’ Macmillan Press 0-333-242904 1982
- ROTHE, M. HEIDENREICH, T. SPICHER, U. SCHUBERT, A. ‘Knock Behaviour of SI Engines: Thermodynamic Analysis of Knock Onset Locations and Knock Intensities’ SAE paper 2006-01-0225 2006
- HARRALSON, J. ‘Design of Racing and High Performance Engines’ SAE book PT-53 1-56091-601-X 1995
- ‘Internal Combustion Engines-Performance’ Australian Standard 1999
- TAYLOR, C.F. ‘The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice’ 1 2 0262700271 1977
- HEYWOOD, J. ‘Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals’ 007028637X 1988
- WATSON, H.C. MILKINS, E.E. ‘Cylinder Head Design’ Modern engine developments Lecture 7246/1 University of Melbourne 1972
- DAVIS, R.S. PATTERSON, G.S. ‘Cylinder Pressure Data Quality Checks and Procedures to Maximize Data Accuracy’ SAE paper 2006-01-1346 2006
- MacINNES, H. ‘Turbochargers’ HP Books 0-912656-49-2 1984
- OTOBE, Y. GOTO, O. MIYANO, H. KAWAMOTO, M. AOKI, A. OGAWA, T. ‘Honda Formula 1 Turbocharged V6 1.5 liter Engine’ SAE paper 890877 1989
- CLOUGH, M.J. ‘Precision Cooling of a Four Valve per Cylinder Engine’ SAE paper 931123 1993
- HAMORI, F. ‘Exploring the Limits of Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition’ Mech.Eng. Dept, Univ. of Melbourne 2006
- Automotive Engineering International ‘Traveling the long road to gasoline direct injection’ SAE International June 2006