This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Development of an Impact Pendulum for Use in Collinear, Low-Velocity Front-to-Rear Crash Tests
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 03, 2006 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The costs of low-velocity, front-to-rear crash tests include the bullet (striking) and target (struck) cars. Analyses of this type of tests led us to conclude that it may be technically feasible and economically advantageous to replace the bullet car with a simplified mechanical device. A bifilar pendulum with an impact face consisting of a mass-spring-damper system was designed to simulate the bullet car in car-to-car, collinear, low-velocity (delta-v <= 8 km/h) front-to-rear tests. The elements of the pendulum face were evaluated dynamically and quasi-statically. Also, car-to-car tests were initially performed with stationary target cars (brakes off). Repair or replacement of the minor damage observed in the cars was accomplished as needed. Tests were subsequently performed with the pendulum striking the same target cars and approximating the bullet cars' impact energies. The pendulum, bullet, and target cars were instrumented with translational acceleration and velocity sensors. A BioRID IIg Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) instrumented with neck and thoracic load cells, and head and spine accelerometers was used in the driver seat of each of the target cars. High-speed photography was used to measure the motion of the pendulum and cars in all the crash tests. The loads and accelerations measured within the ATD, and accelerations of the target car were compared between the car-car and pendulum-car tests. The results show that within the delta-v range tested, the longitudinal accelerations of the target car in the car-car tests were similar to those measured in the pendulum tests. The loads and accelerations measured within the ATD were also similar between the car-car and pendulum-car tests. Due to the motion of the bifilar pendulum, there were some minor differences in the vertical accelerations of the target cars. Nevertheless, for the delta-v range and the cars used in this test series, the authors conclude that the pendulum impact device provides an adequate simulation of the mechanical dynamics of the bullet car, and may be used to reduce costs in some low-velocity, car-to-car tests.
CitationGuzman, H., Meredith, R., and Hiltner, E., "Development of an Impact Pendulum for Use in Collinear, Low-Velocity Front-to-Rear Crash Tests," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-1401, 2006, https://doi.org/10.4271/2006-01-1401.
- Viano D., “Seat Properties Affecting Neck Responses in Rear Impacts: A Possible Reason Why Whiplash Has Increased.”, in The Debate Between Stiff and Yielding Seats, Society of Automotive Engineers, (2003).
- Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Status Report, January 31, 2005.
- Test Measurement Systems, Inc, FMVSS Part 581 Bumper Test System.
- United Nations, ECE No.42, Agreement Concerning the Adoption of Uniform Conditions of Approval and Reciprocal Recognition of Approval for Motor Vehicle Equipment and Parts, Geneva, March 24, 1980.
- Transport Canada, Motor Vehicle Safety Act: Motor Vehicle Safety Regulations Standard 215.
- Aries Automotive Website. Retrieved on August 11, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.aries-ing.com/auto/prod/segur/endulbt.php.
- Suspa Gasfedern Website. Retrieved on September 19, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.suspa.com/auctores/scs/imc/fdProduktID=eb7859Xf39630b8adXY64f8=fdBereichID=10b053Xf3002e2b27XY6bc2=fdUnterbereichID=eb7859Xf39630b8adXY651b=fdInf_ID=10b053Xf356726e90XY5f55=I=96646193/indexhtm?ITServ=1fc8d891X10693237928XY1d36.
- Institut Fur Kraftfahrwesen Aachen Web Site http://www.ika.rwth-aachen.de/ueber_uns/ausstattung-e.php.
- CIC Test Labs - Large Pendulum Rig Web Site. Retrieved August 11, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.cic.cranfield.ac.uk/rigs_p1.htm.
- Southwest Research Institute, Pendulum Impact Facility.
- Society of Automotive Engineers, Low-Speed Impact Bumper System Test Procedure for Passenger Vehicles. Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice, April 1997.
- Society of Automotive Engineers, Bumper Evaluation Test Procedure - Passenger Cars - SAE J980a, July, 1971.
- Scott MW, McConnell WE, Guzman HM, Howard RP, Bomar JB, Smith HL, Benedict JV, Raddin JH, & Hatsell CP. Comparison of Human and ATD Head Kinematics During Low-Speed Rearend Impacts. SAE Paper 930094, 1993.
- Viano D, Olsen S, Locke G, Mladen H. Neck Biomechanical Responses with Active Head Restraint Systems: Rear Barrier Tests with BioRID and Sled Tests with Hybrid III in Role of the Seat in Rear Crash Safety SAE J980a, Society of Automotive Engineers, 2002.
- Geigl BC, Steffan H, Dippel CH, Muser MH, Walz F, Svensson MY. Comparison of Head-Neck Kinematics During Rear End Impact Between Standard Hybrid III, RID Neck, Volunteers, and PMTO's. IRCOBI Conf Proc. pp. 261-270, Brunnen Switzerland, 1995.
- Linder A, Lovsund P & Steffan H, Validation of the BioRID P3 Against Volunteer and PMHS Test Data and Comparison to the Hybrid III in Low-Velocity Rear-end Impacts. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, Spain, 1999.
- Davidsson Johan, Development of a Mechanical Model for Rear Impacts: Evaluation of Volunteer Responses and Validation of the Model. Crash Safety Division, Department of Machine and Vehicle Design, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, 2000.
- Linder A, Bergman U, Svensson M, Viano D. Biofidelity of Rear Impact Dummies for Pendulum Impacts to the Back in Role of the Seat in Rear Crash Safety, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. 2002.
- International Insurance Whiplash Prevention Group, 2002.
- Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, News Release. Tests of Seat/Head Restraints in Minivans. September, 2005.
- Denton Robert A., Inc. BioRID II Users Manual, November, 2004.
- European BioRID User Meeting Minutes, July, 2003.
- Siddall, Donald E. and Day Terry. Updating the Vehicle Class Categories. SAE Paper 960897, 1996.
- Society of Automotive Engineers, Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice, SAE J211-1, July, 1970, revised December 2003.
- International Insurance Whiplash Prevention Group, IIWPG Protocol for the Dynamic Testing of Motor Vehicle Seats for Neck Injury Prevention. January, 2004.
- Haykin, Simon, Communication Systems, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994.
- Schneider R. F., Analysis of Experimental Reliability. Supplement 001, On-line document, April, 2002.