This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Assessment of 3 and 6-Year-Old Neck Injury Criteria Based on Field Investigation, Modeling, and Sled Testing
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 03, 2006 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The intent of this study was to compare the neck responses measured from the Hybrid III 3 and 6-year-old ATDs in laboratory testing to injuries sustained by three children in a field crash and investigate the appropriateness of recommended in-position neck injury assessment reference values (IARVs), and the regulated out-of-position (OOP) IARVs specified in FMVSS 208 for the Hybrid III 3 and 6-year-old ATDs. This paper principally reports on apparent artifacts associated with the Hybrid III 3 and 6-year-old ATDs, which complicated investigating the appropriateness of the in-position and out-of-position neck IARVs. In tests using 3-point belt restraints, these apparent artifacts included: 1) High neck extension moments, which produced the peak Nij values, without significant observed relative head-to-neck motion, 2) Neck tension forces well in excess of the IARVs that occurred when the ATD's chin contacted the chest. Because humanlike kinematics and force deflection properties for belt restrained chin-to-chest contact have not been defined, and ATD force deflection criteria are not specified for chin-to-chest contact; the biofidelity of the neck data measured by the ATD during chin-to-chest contact is doubtful. This paper also compares the measured neck injury criteria with 3 and 6-year-old Hybrid III ATDs to the neck injuries sustained by the three children in a previously reported frontal crash. To the extent the test environment simulated the field crash, the out-of-position neck tension IARVs seemed consistent with the injuries sustained by the 3 and 6-year-old children who were in 3-point restraints, but had placed the shoulder belts behind their backs. Excluding neck tension measurements during chin-to-chest contact, the neck tensions measured in the lap/shoulder belted sled tests seemed consistent with the injuries sustained by the lap/shoulder belted 7-year-old child in the field crash. While the Hybrid III 3 and 6-year-old ATDs are the best available tools for assessing child neck injury potential, judgment is needed in interpreting the neck data from tests with belt restraint systems. It is inappropriate to only consider the peak neck measurements without examining the events surrounding those peak values.
- Mark R. Sochor - University of Michigan Program for Injury Research and Education
- Daniel P. Faust - University of Michigan Program for Injury Research and Education
- Kathryn F. Anderson - University of Michigan Program for Injury Research and Education
- Stewart C. Wang - University of Michigan Program for Injury Research and Education
- Skip Barnes - TRW Automotive
- Stephen A. Ridella - TRW Automotive
CitationSochor, M., Faust, D., Anderson, K., Barnes, S. et al., "Assessment of 3 and 6-Year-Old Neck Injury Criteria Based on Field Investigation, Modeling, and Sled Testing," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-0253, 2006, https://doi.org/10.4271/2006-01-0253.
SAE 2006 Transactions Journal of Passenger Cars: Mechanical Systems
Number: V115-6; Published: 2007-03-30
Number: V115-6; Published: 2007-03-30
- Agaram, V. Kang, J. Nusholtz, G. Kostyniuk, G. “Hybrid III Dummy Neck Response to Air Bag Loading.” Proceedings of the 17 th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles 2000 Amsterdam, Holland
- Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers 1999 “Dummy Response Limit for FMVSS 208 Compliance Testing.” Annex 2 of the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers Submission to SNPRM December 23 1999
- Dorel Juvenile Group 2005 Qualification of HIII-10C Dummy September 12 2005
- FMVSS 208 1997 “Occupant Crash Protection.” Docket of Federal Regulations 49, Part 571.208 US Government Printing Office Washington, D.C.
- FMVSS 208 2004 “Occupant Crash Protection.” Docket of Federal Regulations 49, Part 571.208 US Government Printing Office Washington, D.C.
- FMVSS 213 2003 “Child Restraint Systems.” Docket of Federal Regulations 49, Part 571.213 US Government Printing Office Washington, D.C.
- Huelke, D. Mackay, G. et al “A Review of Cervical Fractures and Fracture-Dislocations without Head Impacts Sustained by Restrained Occupants.” Accident Analysis and Prevention 1991 25 6 731 743
- Huelke, D.F. Mackay, G.M. Morris, A. Bradford, M. “Car Crashes and Non-head Impact Cervical Spine Injuries in Infants and Children.” SAE 920562 1992 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Irwin, A.L. Mertz, H.J. “Biomechanical Bases for the CRABI and Hybrid III Child Dummies.” Proceedings of the 41 st Stapp Car Crash Conference 1997 1 12 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Kang, J. Agaram, V. Nusholtz, G.S. Kostyniuk, G.W. “Air Bag Loading on In-Position Hybrid III Dummy Neck” SAE 2001-01-0179 2001 69 84
- Menon, R. Ghati, Y. Ridella, S. Roberts, D. Winston, F. “Evaluation of restraint type and performance tested with 3- and 6-year-old Hybrid III dummies at a range of speeds” SAE 2004-01-0319 2004 59 69
- Mertz, H.J. Patrick, L.M. “Strength and Response of the Human Neck.” Proceedings of the 15 th Stapp Car Crash Conference 1971 207 255 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Mertz, H.J. Weber, D.A. “Interpretations of the Impact Responses of a 3-Year-Old Child Dummy Relative to Child Injury Potential.” Proceedings of the Ninth International Technical Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles 1982 368 376 Kyoto, Japan SAE 826048, SP-736
- Mertz, H.J. Driscoll, G.D. Lenox, J.B. Nyquist, G.W. Weber, D.A. “Responses of animals exposed to deployment of various passenger inflatable restraint system concepts for a variety of collision severities and animal positions.” Proceedings of the Ninth International Technical Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles 1982 352 368 Kyoto, Japan SAE 826047 PT31
- Mertz, H.J. Prasad, P. Irwin, A.L. “Injury risk curves for children and adults in frontal and rear collisions.” SAE 973318 1997 13 30
- Mertz, H.J. Prasad, P. “Improved neck injury risk curves for tension and extension moment measurements of crash dummies.” Stapp Car Crash Journal 2000 44 59 75
- Mertz, H.J. Irwin, A.L. Prasad, P. “Biomechanical and Scaling Bases for Frontal and Side Impact Injury Assessment Reference Values.” Stapp Car Crash Journal 2003 47 155 188
- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 1998 “Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM) for Advanced Airbags.” Federal Register (FR) 63 181 September 18 1998
- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 2000 “Final Rule on Advanced Airbags.” Federal Register (FR) 65 May 12 2000
- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration “Proposed Amendment to FMVSS No 213, Frontal Test Procedure, Part III, Proposed Dummies, Injury Criteria and Other Changes” 2002 U.S. Department of Transportation Washington, DC.
- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration “Laboratory Test Procedure for FMVSS 208 Occupant Crash Protection (TP208-12)” Appendix C, Part 572 Subpart N (6-Year-Old) Dummy Performance Calibration Test Procedure 2003 U.S. Department of Transportation Washington, DC C1 C45
- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration “Laboratory Test Procedure for FMVSS 208 Occupant Crash Protection (TP208-12)” Appendix D, Part 572, Subpart P (3 Year-Old) Dummy Performance Calibration Test Procedure 2003 U.S. Department of Transportation Washington, DC D1 D40
- Newman, J.A. Dalmotas, D. “Atlanto-occipital fracture dislocation in lap-belt restrained children” SAE 933099 1993 165 171
- Nusholtz, G.S. Di Domenico, L. Shi, Y. Eagle, P. “Studies of Neck Injury Criteria Based on Existing Biomechanical Test Data.” Accident Analysis & Prevention 2003 35 777 786
- SAE J1733 1994 “Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash Testing.” Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- SAE J211 1995 “Instrumentation for Impact Test - Part 1 - Electronic Instrumentation.” Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- SAE J2052 1997 “Test Device Head Contact Duration Analysis.” Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- SAE PT-44 1994 “Hybrid III - The First Humanlike Crash Test Dummy.” Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Sherwood, C.P. Shaw, C.G. Van Rooij, L. Kent, R.W. Gupta, P.K. Crandall, J.R. Orzechowski, K.M. Eichelberger, M.R. Kallieris, D. “Prediction of cervical spine injury risk for the 6-year-old child in frontal crashes” 46 th Annual Proceedings AAAM 2002
- Sochor, M.R. Faust, D.P. Garton, H. Ridella, S.A. Barnes, S. Fischer, K. Wang, S.C. “Simulation of Occipitoatlantoaxial Injury: Utilizing a MADYMO Model” SAE 2004-01-0326 2004 1 9
- Stalnaker, R.L. “Spinal Cord Injuries to Children in Real World Accidents” SAE 933100 1993 173 183
- Sun, P.P. Poffenbarger, G.J. Durham, S. Zimmerman, R.A. “Spectrum of occipitoatlantoaxial injury in young children” J Neurosurg 2000 93 28 39
- Tylko, S. Dalmotas, D. “Protection of Rear Seat Occupants in Frontal Crashes.” Experimental Safety Vehicles Conference 2005 Paper 05-258 Washington, D.C.
- Wolanin, M.J. Mertz, H.J. Nyznyk, R.S. Vincent, J.H. “Description and Basis of a Three- Year-Old Child Dummy for Evaluating Passenger Inflatable Restraint Concepts.” Proceedings of the Ninth International Technical Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles 1982 287 299 Kyoto, Japan