This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Modeling Diesel Engine NOx and Soot Reduction with Optimized Two-Stage Combustion
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 03, 2006 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
A multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code with detailed chemistry, the KIVA-CHEMKIN-GA code, was employed in this study, where Genetic Algorithms (GA) were used to optimize heavy-duty diesel engine operating parameters. A two-stage combustion (TSC) concept was explored to optimize the combustion process at high speed (1737 rev/min) and medium load (57% load). Two combustion modes were combined in this concept. The first stage is ideally Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion and the second stage is diffusion combustion under high temperature and low oxygen concentration conditions. This can be achieved for example by optimization of two-stage combustion using multiple injection or sprays from two different injectors.
The present optimization study was split into two parts: early injection event optimization, the purpose of which was to prepare a homogeneous mixture for the HCCI combustion, and late injection event optimization, the purpose of which was to find optimum engine operating parameters and to optimize engine performance. An inhomogeneity assessment concept is proposed to evaluate the mixture quality for HCCI combustion. This concept can be used in early injection event optimization prior to ignition.
As a limiting benchmark case, the late injection event optimization was conducted assuming a homogeneous mixture has already been formed in the cylinder before ignition occurs. Four engine operating parameters were optimized: Intake Valve Closure (IVC) timing, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) ratio, Start of Late Injection (SOLI) timing and the fraction of fuel in HCCI combustion. Parametric studies were also conducted to investigate the effects of these parameters on engine performance. The results showed that combining late IVC timing, late SOLI and a medium EGR level, two-stage combustion was able to achieve low engine-out emissions. The TSC concept shows great potential to meet future ultra-low emission standards.
CitationSun, Y. and Reitz, R., "Modeling Diesel Engine NOx and Soot Reduction with Optimized Two-Stage Combustion," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-0027, 2006, https://doi.org/10.4271/2006-01-0027.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Combustion 2006
Number: SP-2005 ; Published: 2006-04-03
Number: SP-2005 ; Published: 2006-04-03
- Kimura, S., Aoki, O., Kitahara, Y. and Aiyoshizawa, E., “Ultra-clean combustion technology combining a low-temperature and premixed combustion concept for meeting future emission standards”, SAE Paper 2001-01-0200, 2001.
- Hasegawa, R., and Yanagihara, H., “HCCI Combustion in DI Diesel Engine”, SAE Paper 2003-01-0745, 2003.
- Hardy, W.L., “An Experimental Investigation of Advanced Diesel Combustion Strategies for Emissions Reductions in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine at High Speed and Medium Load”, Master's Thesis of University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2005
- Amsden, A.A., KIVA-3V, Release 2, Improvements to KIVA-3V. LA-UR-99-915
- Kee, R.J., Rupley, F.M. and Miller, J.A., “CHEMKIN-II: A Fortran Chemical Kinetics Package for the Analysis of Gas-Phase Chemical Kinetics,” Sandia Report, SAND 89-8009, 1989
- Senecal, P.K., and Reitz, R.D., “Simultaneous Reduction of Engine Emissions and Fuel Consumption Using Genetic Algorithms and Multi-Dimensional Spray and Combustion Modeling,” SAE 2000-01-1890, 2000.
- Han, Z., and Reitz, R.D., “Turbulence Modeling of Internal Combustion Engines Using RNG k-ε models,” Comb. Sci. Tech., Vol. 106, pp., 1995.
- Schmidt, D.P., Nouar, I., Senecal, P.K., Rutland, C.J., Martin, J.K., and Reitz, R.D., “Pressure-Swirl Atomization in the Near Field,” SAE Paper 1999-01-0496, 1999.
- Beale, J.C. and Reitz, R.D., “Modeling Spray Atomization with the Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor Hybrid Model”, Atomization and Sprays, Vol.9, pp.623-650, 1999
- Ra, Y. and Reitz, R.D., “The Application of Multi-Component Droplet Vaporization Model to Gasoline Direct Injection Engines,” Int. Journal of Engine Research, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 193-218, 2003.
- O'Rourke, P.J., and Amsden, A.A., “A Spray/Wall interaction Submodel for the KIVA-3 Wall Film Model,” SAE Paper 2000-01-0271, 2000.
- Patel, A., Kong, S.C., and Reitz, R.D., “Development and Validation of a Reduced Reaction Mechanism for HCCI Engine Simulations,” SAE 2004-01-0558, 2004.
- Kong, S.C., Sun, Y., and Reitz, R.D., “Modeling Diesel Spray Flame Lift-Off, Sooting Tendency and NOx Emissions Using Detailed Chemistry with Phenomenological Soot Model,” ASME ICES2005-1009, 2005
- Nagle, J. and Strickland-Constable, R. F., “Oxidation of Carbon between 1000-2000 C,” Proc. of the Fifth Carbon Conf., Volume 1, Pergammon Press, p. 154, 1962.
- Chryssakis, C.A., Assanis, D.N., Lee, J.K., and Nishida, K., “Fuel Spray Simulation of High-Pressure Swirl-Injector for DISI Engines and Comparison with Laser Diagnostic Measurements,” SAE Paper 2003-01-0007, 2003
- Lietchy, M.P., “Optimization of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Operating Parameters At High Speed And Medium Load Using Genetic Algorithms”, Master's Thesis of University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2004
- Coldren, D.R., Schuricht, S.R., and Smith, R.A., III, “Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector with Rate Shaping Capability”, SAE Paper 2002-01-2890, 2002.
- U.S. Patent # 5626115, by Kawaguchi,
- Sun, Y., Ra, Y., and Reitz, R.D., “Diesel HCCI Combustion Optimization Using Variable Geometry Sprays and Genetic Algorithms,” Proceedings ILASS-2005, Irvine, CA, May 22-25, 2005.
- Helmantel, A., Gustavsson, J. and Denbratt, I., “Operation of a DI Diesel Engine With Variable Effective Compression Ratio in HCCI and Conventional Diesel Mode”, SAE Paper 2005-01-0177, 2005
- Simescu, S., Fiveland, S.B. and Dodge, L.G., “An experimental investigation of PCCI-DI combustion and emissions in a heavy-duty diesel engine”, SAE Paper 2003-01-0345, 2003