This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
A Mixed Numerical-Experimental Analysis for the Development of a Partially Stratified Compressed Natural Gas Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 11, 2005 by Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche in Italy
Annotation ability available
This paper discusses a partially stratified technology for engines running lean on natural gas. A single cylinder research engine has been modified to enable direct injection of a small quantity of natural gas through the spark plug to the region of the electrodes, independent of the overall lean homogeneous charge. Thus, a Partially Stratified Charge (PSC) is formed within the chamber allowing significant extension of the lean limit of combustion. Although PSC has been shown to reduce NOX emissions and improve combustion efficiency, high hydrocarbon emissions have been observed and this was thought to be due to poor mixing of the injected fuel air charge.
The mixed experimental-numerical activity described herein, carried out by the Universities of British Columbia of Vancouver and Roma Tor Vergata, is aimed at improving the micro-direct injection PSC process. The numerical study has enabled a detailed analysis of the fluid dynamics and combustion processes in the region of the electrodes, early in the combustion cycle. The model has been verified using experimental data from the single cylinder research engine. The results suggest that improving mixing of the PSC (by changing the way it is injected into the combustion chamber) can significantly reduce NOX. A multi-hole injection concept has been designed and numerically tested, indicating a potential improvement in both performance and emissions.
CitationAndreassi, L., Cordiner, S., Mulone, V., Reynolds, C. et al., "A Mixed Numerical-Experimental Analysis for the Development of a Partially Stratified Compressed Natural Gas Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2005-24-029, 2005, https://doi.org/10.4271/2005-24-029.
- Umiersky, M. Huchtebrock, B. 2003 “CNG concepts for Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Vehicle Challenging Diesel Powertrains.” SAE_NA Paper 2003-01-45
- Environment Canada 2001 “1990–2001 GHG Emission Estimates for Canada” http://www.ec.gc.ca/pdb/ghg/canada_2001_e.cfm
- Corbo, P. Gambino, M. Iannaccone, S. Unich, A. 1995 “Comparison Between Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric Technologies for CNG Heavy-Duty Engines.” SAE Paper 950057
- Das, A. Watson, H. C. 1997 “Development of a Natural Gas Spark Ignition Engine for Optimum Performance.” Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs. 211 Part D 361 378
- Manivannan, A. Tamil Porai, P. Chandrasekan, S. Ramprabhu, R. 2003 “Lean Burn Natural Gas Spark Ignition Engine - An Overview.” SAE Paper 2003-01-0638
- Glasson, N. Lumsden, G. Dingli, R. Watson, H. C. 1996 “Development of the HAJI System for a Multi-Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine.” SAE Paper 961104
- Arcoumanis, C. Hull, D. R. Whitelaw, J. H. 1997 “Optimizing Local Charge Stratification in a Lean-burn Spark Ignition Engine.” Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs. 211 Part D 145 154
- Robinet, C. Higelin, P. Moreau, B. Pajot, O. Andrzejewski, J. 1999 “A New Firing Concept for Internal Combustion Engines: “l’APIR”.” SAE Paper 1999-01-0621
- Chung, S. Ha, J. Park, W. Yeom, J. Lee, M. 2003 “A Study on a Spark Plug for Charging of Stratified Mixture in a Local Area.” SAE Paper 2003-01-3213
- Chung, S. Ha, J. Park, W. Lee, M. Yeom, J. 2003 “Rapid Bulk Combustion of Lean Premixture by Using Radical Injection method and an Application to an Actual Engine.” SAE Paper 2003-01-3212
- Kettner, M. Fischer, J. Nauwerck, A. Tribulowski, J. Spicher, U. Amin, V. Kuhnert, D. Latsch, R. 2004 “The BPI Flame Jet Concept to Improve the Inflammation of Lean Burn Mixtures in Spark Ignited Engines.” SAE Paper 2004-01-0035
- Reynolds, C. Evans, R. L. 2004 “Improving emissions and performance characteristics of lean burn natural gas engines through partial stratification.” International Journal of Engine Research 5 1 105 114
- Andreassi, L. Cordiner, S. Mulone, V. Reynolds, C. Evans, R. L. 2004 “Numerical-experimental comparison of the performance of a partially stratified charge natural gas fuelled engine.” Paper n. ICEF2004-912, ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division: 2004 Fall Technical Conference, Long Beach, CA, USA
- Heywood, J. B. 1988 Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals McGraw-Hill New York
- Papageorgakis G. Assanis D.N. 1998 “Optimizing Gaseous Fuel-Air Mixing in Direct Injection Engines Using an RNG based k-ɛ model” SAE Paper 980135
- Andreassi, L. Cordiner, S. Mulone, V. Reynolds, C. Evans, R. L. 2003 “Numerical and Experimental Comparison of the Performance of a Natural Gas Fuelled IC Engine.” SAE_NA Paper 2003-01-44
- US-EPA 2000 “Proposal for Cleaner Heavy-Duty Trucks and Buses and Cleaner Diesel Fuel.” US Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov/otaq/regs/fuels/diesel/factshet.pdf
- Fujimoto H. Hyun G. Nogami M. Hirakawa K. Asai T. Senda J. 1997 “Characteristics of Free Impinging Gas Jets by Means of Image Processing” SAE paper n. 970045