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Life Cycle Analysis Framework; A Comparison of HFC-134a, HFC-134a Enhanced, HFC-152a, R744, R744 Enhanced, and R290 Automotive Refrigerant Systems
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 11, 2005 by SAE International in United States
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The goal of this study is to assess the total Life Cycle Global Warming Impact of the current HFC-134a (R134a) refrigeration system and compare it with the effect of proposed alternatives, HFC-134a Enhanced, HFC-152 (R152a), R744, R744 Enhanced and R290, based on life cycle analysis (LCA). The enhanced systems include control strategies to elevate the compressor suction pressure as the evaporator load is reduced. The hydrofluorocarbons HFC-134a and HFC-152a are greenhouse gases (GHGs) and are subject to the Kyoto Protocol timetables, which when the treaty takes effect will require participating developed countries to reduce their overall CO2 equivalent emissions of six GHGs by at least 5% by 2012 from 1990 levels.
The results provided in this study are the outcome of an LCA model we developed considering a midsize vehicle and considering the total energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent emissions emitted throughout the lifetime of the vehicle, which includes the manufacturing phase of the Air Conditioning (A/C) components, use-phase during driving of the vehicle and the end-of-life phase. Nevertheless, the model is flexible to accommodate other vehicle types and driving cycles.
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|Technical Paper||Global Warming Impact of Automotive Air Conditioning Systems|
CitationHill, W. and Papasavva, S., "Life Cycle Analysis Framework; A Comparison of HFC-134a, HFC-134a Enhanced, HFC-152a, R744, R744 Enhanced, and R290 Automotive Refrigerant Systems," SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1511, 2005, https://doi.org/10.4271/2005-01-1511.
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