This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
The Effects of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter and Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emissions
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 11, 2005 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The objective of this research was to study the effect of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) with a high loading of catalyst (50 gms/ft3) and ultra low sulfur fuel (ULSF -0.57 ppm of sulfur) on the emissions from a heavy duty diesel engine. The particulate emissions were measured using two different analytical methods, i.e., the gravimetric method and the thermal optical method (TOM). The results from the two different methods of analyses were compared. The experiments were performed at four different operating conditions chosen from the old Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 13-mode test cycle.
A 1995 Cummins M11 heavy-duty engine with manually controlled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was used to perform the emission characterization experiments. The emission characterization included total particulate matter (TPM), which is composed of the solids (SOL), soluble organic fractions (SOF) and sulfates (SO4) analyzed using the gravimetric method. The particulate emissions were also analyzed for total carbon (TC), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) using the TOM. Gas phase emissions consisting of the hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and oxygen (O2) were measured along with the particle size distributions. The four operating conditions were at rated speed of 1800 rpm and at loads 25, 50, 75 and 100 %; these conditions are designated as Modes 11, 10, 9 and 8, respectively, from the old EPA 13-mode test cycle. All the emissions (except for the gas phase emissions) were sampled in the dilute exhaust and then converted back into the raw exhaust concentrations. The differences between the two methods of analyses of the particulate matter were studied by comparing the EC and SOL, OC and SOF, TC and TPM-SO4 fractions.
CitationThalagavara, A., Johnson, J., Bagley, S., and Shende, A., "The Effects of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter and Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emissions," SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0473, 2005, https://doi.org/10.4271/2005-01-0473.
- www.dieselnet.com., http://www.dieselnet.com/tech/emi_gas.html. http://www.dieselnet.com/tech/dpf_cat.html.
- Thalagavara A. M., Shende A. S., Johnson J.H., Yang S. L., Bagley S.T., “A Study of the Effects of Two Catalyzed Particulate Filters on Exhaust Emissions from a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine: Filtration and Particulate Matter Oxidation Characteristics Studied Experimentally and Using a 1- D 2- Layer Model”, SAE 2005-01-0950, 2005
- Warner J.R., Johnson J.H., Bagley S.T., Huynh C.T., “Effects of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on Emissions from a Diesel Engine: Chemical Characterization Data and Particulate Emissions Measured with Thermal Optical and Gravimetric Methods.” SAE 2003-01-0049, 2003.
- Bagley S.T, Gratz L.D, Leddy D.G, Johnson J.H, “Characterization of Particle and Vapor Phase Organic Fraction Emissions from a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Equipped with a Particulate Trap and Regeneration Controls”, HEI report, No 56, July 1993.
- Huynh C.T, “A Study of the Filtration and Regeneration Characteristics of a Catalyzed Wall Flow Diesel Particulate Filter: One Dimensional Model Calibrated and Validated with Experimental Data”, M.S. Thesis, Michigan Technological University, 2002.
- Shende. A. S., Johnson J.H., Yang S. L., Bagley S. T., Thalagavara A. M., “The Filtration and Particulate Matter Oxidation Characteristics of a Catalyzed Wall-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter: Experimental and 1-D 2-Layer Model”, SAE 2005-01-0949, 2005
- Carpenter K.A, “The Design and Development of a Dilution Tunnel for the Physical and Chemical Characterization of Diesel Particulate Matter”, M.S. Thesis, Michigan Technological University, 1978
- Dekati products Ltd, www.dekati.com/thermodenuder
- Abdul-Khalek I.S., Kittelson D.B., Graskow B.R., Wei Q., “Diesel Exhaust Particle Size: Measurement Issues and Trends.” SAE 980525, 1998.
- Birch M.E, “Elemental Carbon Based Method for Occupational Monitoring of Particulate Diesel Exhaust: Methodology and Exposure Issues”, Analyst, Vol 121, September 1996.
- SunsetLaboratory, www.sunlab.com/sampleanalysismethod.html
- U.S Environmental Protection Agency Monitoring and Quality Assurance Group Emissions, Monitoring and Analysis Division Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards Research Triangle Park, “Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Speciation Guidance”, 1999.
- Heywood J. B., “Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals”, WCB McGraw-Hill, USA, 1988.
- Dec J. E., “A Conceptual Model of DI Diesel Combustion Based on Laser Sheet Imaging”, SAE 970873, 1997.
- Girad G.W., “A Study of the Character and Deposition Rates of Sulfur Compounds in the Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooling System of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine”, M.S. Thesis, Michigan Technological University, 1999.
- Blanchard G., Sequelong T., Michelin J., Schuerholz S., Terres F., “Ceria Based Fuel Borne Catalysts for Series Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration”, SAE 2003-01-0378, 2003.
- Clerc J. C., Johnson J. H.,”A Computational Heat Transfer Model for Predicting Diesel Emissions in Dilution Tunnels”, SAE 82128, 1982
- Warner J.R., “Effects of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on Emissions from a Diesel Engine: Chemical Characterization Data and Particulate Emissions Measured with Thermal Optical and Gravimetric Methods.” M.S. Thesis, Michigan Technological University, 2003.
- Liang C. Y., Baumgard K. J., Gorse A. R., Orban J.E., Tan J. C., Thoss J. E., Clark W., “Effects of Diesel Fuel Sulfur Level on Performance of a Continuously Regenerating Diesel Particulate Filter and a Catalyzed Particulate Filter”, SAE 2000-01-1876, 2000