This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Factors that Influence Drivers' Response Choice Decisions in Video Recorded Crashes
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 11, 2005 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Video recordings of real life traffic crashes and near crashes were analysed for driver response choice. These responses were compared to problem solving theories.
In emergency situations drivers were likely to make relatively quick decisions. By allocating limited time to the decision, an algorithmic approach (that considers the probabilities of all options) is not possible in most cases. Instead a driver will decide upon a response using an intuitive (heuristic) approach. Intuitive decision-making is quicker and rule-of-thumb based but has predictable limitations.
Drivers exhibited functional fixedness in that they did not select a “lesser” collision and nearly 40% of horn use was for chastising other drivers rather than for avoidance. Drivers exhibited difference reduction in that they were more likely to steer away from hazards. Also, drivers exhibited operant conditioning in that as the complexity of the situation increased, the likelihood of braking as a response increased as well. Therefore, this research shows that drivers' decisions were governed by intuition and that drivers will not likely consider all possible alternatives in the short time available in an emergency situation.
The results of this research were compared to previous research. Applications in forensic settings, for driver education, and as a baseline when evaluating driver choice for Intelligent Transportation Systems purposes is addressed.
CitationMuttart, J., "Factors that Influence Drivers' Response Choice Decisions in Video Recorded Crashes," SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0426, 2005, https://doi.org/10.4271/2005-01-0426.
Human Factors in Driving, Telematics and Seating Comfort 2005
Number: SP-1934; Published: 2005-04-11
Number: SP-1934; Published: 2005-04-11
- Bandura, A. 1965 Influence of a model's reinforcement contingencies on the acquisition of imitative responses Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 11 589 595
- Cook, M. Mineka, S. 1985 Observational conditioning of fear to fear-relevant versus fear irrelevant stimuli in rhesus monkeys Journal of Abnormal Psychology 98 448 459
- Summala, H. Lamble, D. Laakso, M. 1998 Driving Experience and perception of the lead car's braking when looking at in-car targets Accident Analysis and Prevention 30 4 401 407
- Alexander, G.J. Lunenfeld, H. 1986 Driver Expectancy in Highway Design and Traffic Operations Federal Highway Administration Washington, D.C.
- Fisher, J. 1992 Testing the Effect of Road Traffic Signs' Informational Value on Driver Behavior Human Factors 34 2 231 237
- Fuller, R. 1984 A conceptualisation of driving behaviors as threat avoidance Ergonomics 27 1139 1155
- Dewar, R. E. Olson, P. L. 2002 Human factors in Traffic Safety Tucson, AZ Lawyers & Judges Publishing, Inc.
- Batchelder, S. Rizzo, M Vanderleest, R. Vecera, S. 2003 Traffic scene related change blindness in older drivers Driving Assessment 2 nd Proceedings 2003 177 181
- Rasanen, M. Summala, H. 1998 Attention and expectation problems in bicycle-car collisions: An in-depth study Accident Analysis and Prevention 30 657 666
- Simons, D. J. Chabris, C. F. 1999 Gorillas in ours midst: Sustained inattentional blindness for dynamics events Perception 28 1059 1074
- Hertwig, R. Barron, G. Weber, E. U. Erev, I. 2004 Decisions from experience and the effect of rare events in risky choice Psychological Science 15 534 539
- Reyna, V. F. 2004 How people make decisions that involve risk Current Directions in Psychological Science 13 60 66
- Hoffman, E. R. Mortimer, R. G. 1996 Scaling of relative velocity between vehicles Accident Analysis and Prevention 128 415 427
- Todosiev, E. P. 1965 Velocity thresholds in car following Columbus, OH Ohio Department of Highways
- Muttart, J. W. Messerschmidt, W. Gillen, L. 2005 Relationship between Relative Velocity Detection and Driver Response Times in Vehicle Following Situations Warrendale, PA Society of Automotive Engineers
- Roper, V. J. Howard, E. A. 1938 Seeing with motor car headlamps Illuminating Engineering Society 33 417 438
- Lassiter, G. D. 2002 Illusory causation in the courtroom Current Directions in Psychological Science 11 204 208
- Lassiter, G. D. Geers, A. L. Munhall, P. J. Ploutz-Snyder, R. J. Breitenbecher, D. L. 2002 Illusory causation why it occurs Psychological Science 13
- Olson, P. L. 1996 Forensic Aspects of Driver Perception and Response Tucson, AZ Lawyers and Judges Publishing, Inc.
- Kahneman, D. 2003 A perspective on judgment and choice: Mapping bounded rationality American Psychologist 54 697 720
- Muttart 2000 Effects of Retroreflective Material Upon Pedestrian Identification at Night Accident Reconstruction Journal January 2000
- Olson, P. L. Farber, E. 2002 Forensic Aspects of Driver Perception and Response 2nd Tucson, AZ Layers and Judges Publishing, Inc.
- Anderson, J. R. 1995 Cognitive Psychology and its Implications 4th New York W. H. Freeman and Company
- Hole, G. J. Tyrell, L. 1995 The influence of perceptual ‘set’ on the detection of motorcyclists using daytime lights Ergonomics 38 1326 1341
- Hankey, J. M. McGehee D. V. Dingus, T. A. Mazzae, E. N. Garrott, W. R. 1996 Initial driver avoidance behavior and reaction time to an unalerted intersection incursion Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 40th Annual Meeting
- Malaterre, B. Fernandez, F. Fleury, D. Lechner, D. 1988 Decision making in emergency situations Ergonomics 31 643 655
- Vaughan, R. Vaughan, P. 2001 Evaluation of the influence of several variables upon driver perception response times Institute of Traffic Accident Investigators International Conference Proceedings York, England
- Smyth, M. M. Collins, A. F. Morris, P. E. Levy, P. 1994 Cognition in Action Erlbaum Associates
- Jaffe, E. 2004 What was I thinking? APS Observer 17 5 24 26
- Just, M. A. Carpenter, P. A. 1980 A theory of reading: From eye fixations to comprehension Psychological Review 87 4 329 354
- Van Elslande, P. Fraucher-Alberton, L. 1997 When expectancies become certainties: A potential adverse effect of experience Rothengetter T. Vaya E. Carbonell Traffic & Transport Psychology: Theory and Application 147 159 Amsterdam Pergamon
- Martin, P. G. Burgett, A. L. 2001 Rear-end collision events: Characterization of impending crashes Proceedings of the 1st Human-Centered Transportation Simulation Conference Iowa City, IA University of Iowa
- Lechner, D. Malaterre, G. 1991 Emergency maneuver experimentation using a driving simulator Warrendale, PA SAE
- McGehee, D. V. Brown, T. L. Wilson, T. B. Burns, M. 1998 Examination of driver's collision avoidance behavior in a lead vehicle stopped scenario using a front-to-rear-end collision warning system Washington, D.C. National Highway Traffic safety Administration
- Prynne, K. Martin, P. 1995 Braking behavior in emergencies SAE Technical paper 950969 Warrendale, PA Society of Automotive Engineers
- Rice, R. S. Dell'Amico, F. Rasmussen, R. E. 1976 Automobile driver characteristics and capabilities-The man-off-the-street SAE Paper No. 760777 Warrendale, PA Society of Automotive Engineers
- Araki K. Matsuura, Y. 1990 Driver's response and behavior on being confronted with a pedestrian or a vehicle suddenly darting across the road SAE Technical paper # 900144 Warrendale, PA Society of Automotive Engineers
- Muttart, J. W. 2003 Development and Evaluation of Driver Response Time Predictors Based upon Meta Analysis SAE paper No. 2003-01-0885 Warrendale, PA Society of Automotive Engineers
- Muttart, J. W. 2003 Evaluation of Methods for Estimating Driver Response Times Institute of Traffic Accident Investigators 2003 Conference Proceedings Stratford-upon-Avon, England
- SPSS, Version 12.0.1 2003 Apache Software Foundation, LEAD Technologies, Inc.
- Green, S. B. Salkind, N. J. Akey, T. M. 1997 Using SPSS for Windows: Analyzing and Understanding the Data Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall Inc.
- Foster, A. R. 2001 Driver's use of horn in an emergency situation: Expectations v reality Institute of Traffic Accident Investigators International Conference Proceedings York, England
- Lee. S. E. Olsen, E. C. B. Wierwille, W. W. 2003 A comprehensive examination of naturalistic lanes changes Washington, DC NHTSA
- Koehler, J. J. Macchi, L. 2004 Thinking about low probability events Psychological Science 15 540 546