This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Cervical Spine Geometry in the Automotive Seated Posture: Variations with Age, Stature, and Gender
Published November 01, 2004 by The Stapp Association in United States
Annotation ability available
In the mid 1970s, UMTRI investigated the biomechanical properties of the head and neck using 180 “normal” adult subjects selected to fill eighteen subject groups based on age (young, mid-aged, older), gender, and stature (short, medium, and tall by gender). Lateral-view radiographs of the subjects’ cervical spines and heads were taken with the subjects seated in a simulated automotive neutral posture, as well as with their necks in full-voluntary flexion and full-voluntary extension. Although the cervical spine and lower head geometry were previously measured manually and documented, new technologies have enabled computer digitization of the scanned x-ray images and a more comprehensive and detailed analysis of the variation in cervical spine and lower head geometry with subject age, stature, and gender. After scanning the radiographic images, 108 skeletal landmarks on the cervical vertebrae and 10 head landmarks were digitized. The resulting database of cervical spine and head geometry was used to study cervical spine curvature, vertebral dimensions, and head/neck orientation as functions of age, gender, and stature. The data were used to characterize neutral posture cervical spine curvatures using two methods: a curvature index and Bézier spline functions. Lateral-view vertebral dimensions were also calculated for each subject, and a cascading series of equations was developed to estimate vertebral size and shape for a selected age, stature, and gender. The orientation of the cervical spine was defined using a neck chord angle, where the neck chord was varied to use different anatomical landmarks and estimates of joint centers for the top and bottom of the neck chord. Results from the study have been incorporated into a MS-Access based software package that allows researchers and modelers to generate cervical spine geometries for occupants of a specified age, gender, and stature. The program allows selection of individual occupants from the database that meet age, stature, gender, or curvature criteria, or creation of a composite cervical spine geometry representative of the selected age, gender, and stature. This tool will allow researchers to configure and vary cervical spine geometry in computer models and experimental test setups used to study head and neck impact response and injury risk.
- Kathleen DeSantis Klinich - University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute
- Sheila M. Ebert - University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute
- Chris A. Van Ee - University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute
- Carol A. C. Flannagan - University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute
- Monica Prasad - University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute
- Matthew P. Reed - University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute
- Lawrence W. Schneider - University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute
CitationKlinich, K., Ebert, S., Van Ee, C., Flannagan, C. et al., "Cervical Spine Geometry in the Automotive Seated Posture: Variations with Age, Stature, and Gender," SAE Technical Paper 2004-22-0014, 2004, https://doi.org/10.4271/2004-22-0014.
- Bilston, L. E. (1998) Finite element analysis of some cervical spinal cord injury modes. Proceedings of the International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact, pp. 365–376. Bron, IRCOBI.
- Black K. M., McClure P., and Polansky M. (1996) The influence of different sitting positions on cervical and lumbar posture. Spine 21(1):65–70.
- Boyle, J. J., Milne, N., and Singer, K. P. (2002) Influence of age on cervicothoracic spinal curvature: an ex vivo radiographic survey. Clinical Biomechanics 17(5): 361–7.
- Camacho, D. L. A., Nightingale, R. W., and Myers, B. S. (1997) Computational modeling of axial neck impact: influence of head motion and cervical spine buckling on dynamic behavior. Crashworthiness, Occupant Protection, and Biomechanics in Transportation Systems, eds. Mahmood, H. Barbat S.D. and Baccouche, M.R. pp. 275–290. ASME, New York.
- Dauvilliers, F., Bendjellal, F., Weiss, M., Lavaste, F., and Tarriere, C. (1994) Development of a finite element model of the neck. Proceedings of the. 38th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 77–91. SAE International, Warrendale, PA.
- Deng, Y.-C. and Fu, J. (2001) Simulation and identification of the neck muscle activities during head and neck flexion whiplash. Impact Biomechanics, pp. 13–24. Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA.
- Doherty, B. J. and Heggeness M. H. (1995) Quantitative anatomy of the second cervical vertebra. Spine 20(5):513–517.
- Ebraheim, N. A., Xu, R., Challgren, E., and Yeasting, R. A. (1997) Quantitative anatomy of the cervical facet and the posterior projection of its inferior facet. Journal of Spinal Disorders 10(4):308–316.
- Ebraheim, N. A., Xu, R., Knight, T., and Yeasting, R. A. (1997) Morphometric evaluation of lower cervical pedicle and its projection. Spine 22(1):1–6.
- Ewing, C. L. and Thomas, D. J. (1973) Torque versus angular displacement response of human head to -Gx impact acceleration. Proceedings of the 17th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 309–342. Society of Automotive Engineers, New York.
- Foust, D. R., Chaffin, D. B., Snyder, R. G., and Baum, J. K. (1973) Cervical range of motion and dynamic response and strength of cervical muscles. Proceedings of the 17th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 28–308. Society of Automotive Engineers, New York.
- Frechede, B., Saillant, G., Lavaste, F., and Skalli, W. (2003) Relationship between cervical spine curvature and risk of injury in the case of sagittal impact: a finite element analysis. Proceedings of the International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact, Bron, France, IRCOBI.
- Frobin, W., Leivseth, G., Biggemann, M, and Brinckmann, P. (2002) Vertebral height, disc height, posterioanterior displacement and dens-atlas gap in the cervical spine: precision measurement prototcol and normal data. Clinical Biomechanics 17:423–431.
- Garg, M. K., Yaparpalvi, R., and Beitler, J. J. (2004) Loss of cervical spinal curvature during radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancers: the neck moves, too. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics. 58(1):185–8.
- Gay, R. E. (1993) The curve of the cervical spine: variations and significance. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics 16(9): 591–4.
- Gilad, I., and Nissan M. (1985) Sagittal evaluation of elemental geometrical dimensions of human vertebrae. Journal of Anatomy 143:115–120.
- Halldin, P. H., Brolin, K., Kleiven, S., Von Holst, H., Jakobsson, L., and Palmertz, C. (2000) Investigation of conditions that affect neck compression-flexion injuries using numerical techniques. Proceedings of the 24th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 127–138. Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA.
- Hardacker, J., W., Shuford, R. F., Capicotto, P. N., and Pryor, P. W. (1997) Radiographic standing cervical segmental alignment in adult volunteers without neck symptoms. Spine 22(13): 1472–80.
- Harrison, D. E., Harrison, D. D., Janik, T. J., Jones, E. W., Cailliet, R., and Normand, M. (2001) Comparison of axial and flexural stresses in lordosis and three buckled configuraitons of the cervical spine. Clinical Biomechanics 16:276–284.
- Harrison, D. E., Harrison, D. D., Cailliet, R., Troyanovich, S. J., Janik, T. J., and Holland, B. (2000) Cobb method or Harrison posterior tangent method: which to choose for lateral cervical readiographic analysis. Spine 25(16)2072–2078.
- Helliwell, P. S. Evans, P. F., and Wright, V. (1994) The straight cervical spine: does it indicate muscle spasm?. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - British Volume. 76(1):103–6.
- Holm, L., Cassidy, J. D., Sjoegren, Y., and Nygren, AA. (1999) Impairment and work disability due to whiplash injury following traffic collisions: an analysis of insurance material from the Swedish Road Traffic Injury Commission. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 27(2): 116–123.
- ICBC, Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (1993) Medical costs of automotive insurance. Recovery Bulletin.
- Jost, R. and Nurick, G. N. (2001) Finite element simulation of the biomechanical response of the human body. Proceedings of the International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact, pp. 255–268. Bron, France, IRCOBI.
- Katz, P. R., Reynolds, H. M., Foust, D. R., and Baum, J. K. (1975) Mid-sagittal dimensions of cervical vertebral bodies. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 43(3): 319–326.
- Kleinberger, M. (1993) Application of finite element techniques to the study of cervical spine mechanics. Proceedings of the 37th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 261–272. Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA.
- Kristjansson, E. and Jonsson, H.,Jr. (2002) Is the sagittal configuration of the cervical spine changed in women with chronic whiplash syndrome? A comparative computer-assisted radiographic assessment. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics 25(9): 550–5.
- Liguoro, D., Vandermeersch, B. and Guerin, J. (1994) Dimensions of cervical vertebral bodies according to age and sex. Surgical Radiologic Anatomy 16:149–155.
- Linder, A., Schmitt, K.-U., Walz, F., and Ono, K. (2000) Neck modeling for rear-end impact simulations - a comparison between a multi body system (MBS) and a finite element (FE) model. Proceedings of the International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts, pp. 491–494. Bron, France, IRCOBI.
- Matsumoto, M., Fujimura, Y., Suzuki, N., Toyama, Y., and Shiga, H. (1998) Cervical curvature in acute whiplash injuries: prospective comparative study with asymptomatic subjects. Injury 29(10): 775–8.
- NHTSA (2000) NASS, www.nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov.
- Panjabi, M. M., Pearson, A. M., Ito, S., Ivancic, P. C., and Wang, J. L. (2004) Cervical spine curvature during simulated whiplash. Clinical Biomechanics 19(1):1–9.
- Park, Y. I. and Kirshblum, S. C. 2002. Spinal cord injury following motor vehicle accidents. In Whiplash, ed. Malanga, Gerard A. Hanley and Belfus, Philadelphia, pp. 181–197.
- Pintar, F. A., Yoganandan, N., Voo, L., Cusick, J. F., Maiman, D. J., and Sances, A., Jr. (1995) Dynamic characteristics of the human cervical spine. Proceedings of the 39th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 195–202. SAE, Warrendale, PA.
- Reed, M. P., Manary, M. A., and Schneider, L. W. (1999). Methods for measuring and representing automobile occupant posture. Technical Paper No. SAE 1999-01-0959.
- Reed, M.P., Manary, M.A., Flannagan, C.A.C., and Schneider, L.W. (2001). The effects of vehicle interior geometry and anthropometric variables on automobile driving posture. Human Factors. 42(4): 541–552.
- Richter M., Otte D., Pohlemann T., Krettek C., and Blauth M. (2000) Whiplash-type neck distortion in restrained car drivers: frequency, causes and long-term results. European Spine Journal. 9: (2)109–17.
- Robbins, D. H., Snyder, R. G., Chaffin, D. B., and Foust, D. R. (1974) A mathematical study of the effect of neck physical parameters on injury susceptibility. SAE Transactions 83.
- Schlaeffer, M. B., Alson, M. D., Heller, J. G., and Garfin, S. R. (1992) Morphology of the dens: a quantitative study. Spine 17(7):738–743.
- Snyder, R. G., Chaffin, D. B., and Foust, D. R. (1975) Bioengineering study of basic physical measurements related to susceptibility ot cervical hyperextension-hyperflexion injury. Final report UM-HSRI-BI-75-6, University of Michigan Highway Safety Research Insitute, Ann Arbor.
- Stemper, B. D., Kumaresan, S., Yoganandan, N., and Pintar, F. A. (2000) Head-neck finite element model for motor vehicle inertial impact: material sensitivity analysis. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation 36:331–335.
- Takeshita, K., Murakami, M., Kobayashi, A., and Nakamura, C. Relationship between cervical curvature index (Ishihara) and cervical spine angle (C2-7). Journal of Orthopedic Science 6:(3)223–226.
- Visscher, C. M., de Boer, W., and Naeije, M. (1998) The relationship between posture and curvature of the cervical spine. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics 21(6): 388–91.
- Voutsinas, S. A., and MacEwan, G. D. (1986) Sagittal profiles of the spine. Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research 210:235–242.
- Wismans, J., Spenny, C. H. (1984) Head-neck response in frontal flexion. Proceedings of the 28th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 161–171. Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA.
- Wittek, A., Ono, K., and Kajzer, J. (2000) Finite element model for simulation of muscle effects on kinematic responses of cervical spine in low-speed rear-end impacts. JARI Research Journal 22(5): 224–227.
- Yoganandan, N., Pintar, F. A., Gennarelli, T. A., Eppinger, R. H., and Voo, L. M. (1999) Geometrical effects on the mechanism of cervical spine injury due to head impact. Proceedings of the International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts, pp. 261–270. Bron, IRCOBI.
- Xu, R., Ebraheim, N. A., Yeasting, R., Wong, F., and Jackson, W. T. (1995) Anatomy of C7 lateral mass and projection of pedicle axis on its posterior aspect. Journal of Spinal Disorders 8(2):116–120.