This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Investigating the Potential to Obtain Low Emissions From a Diesel Engine Running on Ethanol and Equipped With EGR, Catalyst and DPF
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published June 08, 2004 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Experiments were performed to investigate the potential to achieve low emissions from a diesel engine fueled by ethanol and equipped with a commercially available exhaust after-treatment device, DNOX™ from STT Emtec. The DNOX™ system includes exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) catalysts and a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (DPF). Two Euro III classified 9-liter turbocharged, after-cooled diesel engines from Scania were used for the task. One engine was fueled by ethanol and the other by Swedish diesel fuel, EC1. Engine operating conditions of a 22-mode test cycle, including the 13 modes of the European Stationary Cycle (ESC cycle), were used for the tests.
The emissions of NOX and HC were small for the ethanol-fueled engine, 3.48 and 0.53 g/kWh, respectively, while the emission of CO was higher, 2.07 g/kWh. Estimations of emitted particle mass were calculated by using the software supplied in the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The estimations showed that the ethanol engine emitted only ∼1/10 of the particle mass emitted by the diesel-fueled engine.
A powerful reduction of the regulated emissions was obtained when equipping the ethanol engine with EGR, catalyst and DPF. The emissions of HC, CO and NOX decreased down to 0.15, 0.04 and 2.54 g/kWh, respectively, while the estimated particle mass was reduced by 67%. Actually, by using the aftertreatment system, the engine became a Euro IV engine regarding the emissions of HC, CO and NOx. The system worked even better with the diesel-fueled engine. The NOx emission was reduced by approximately 33% and the estimated particle mass by more than 99%.
Calculations showed that the EGR ratio was higher for the diesel engine than for the ethanol engine. Consequently, by applying a higher EGR ratio for the ethanol engine an additional reduction of the NOX emissions should be obtained.
The results indicate that very low NOX and particle emissions could be obtained for an ethanol-fueled diesel engine by using the right after treatment equipment. Future studies should investigate the possibility to increase the EGR ratio further. The investigations also underline the need for development of a special particulate filter for ethanol engines.
CitationHaupt, D., Nord, K., Tingvall, B., Ahlvik, P. et al., "Investigating the Potential to Obtain Low Emissions From a Diesel Engine Running on Ethanol and Equipped With EGR, Catalyst and DPF," SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1884, 2004, https://doi.org/10.4271/2004-01-1884.
Engine Lubricants, Effects of Fuels and Lubricants on Automotive Devices, and Lubricant Applications and New Test Methods
Number: SP-1885 ; Published: 2004-06-08
Number: SP-1885 ; Published: 2004-06-08
- EU (2003) Directive 2003/30/EC from the European Parliament and the Council, 8 May 2003: On the Ppromotion of Use of Biofuels or other Renewable Fuels for Transport.
- Egebäck, K-E., Pettersson, E. “Research on a Scania 11 liter Ethanol Fueled Bus Engine”. Research Report. TULEA 1996:13, 1996.
- Westerholm R., Christensen A., Törnqvist M., Ehrenberg L. and Haupt D. “A Chemical and Biological Characterization of Exhaust Gas from Ethanol and Ethanol Blended Diesel fuels in Comparison with Neat Diesel fuels” Proceedings to XII International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, Beijing, China 1998.
- Haupt, D., Hellberg, S., Nordström, F., Uvemo, U-B. (1997). Kolväten från etanolmotorer. (Hydrocarbons from Ethanol fuelled eengines). KFB-Meddelande 1997:42. Available at: www.kfb.se/publ/main.htm.
- Haupt D., Nordström F., Hellberg S., Uvemo U-B. (2000) “Characterization of Components Classified as Hydrocarbons when using a Heated Flame Ionization Detector for Measurement of Exhaust Gases from an 11 liter Ethanol Fueled Engine”. ISAF XIII, Stockholm 2000.
- Cooper B.J., Thoss J.E. “Role of NO in Diesel Particulate Control” SAE Technical Paper 890404.
- Allansson R., Maloney C.A., Walker A.P., Warren J.P. (2000) “Sulphate Production over the CRTTM: What Fuel Sulphur Level is Required to Enable the EU 4 and EU 5 PM Standards to be met” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-187
- Allansson R., Cooper B. J., Thoss J. E., Uusimäki A. Walker A. P., Warren J.P. “European Experience of High Mileage Durability of Continuously Regenerating Diesel Particulate Filter Technology” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-0480.
- Searles R. A., Boosteels D., Such C. H., Nicol A. J., Andersson J. D. and Jema C. A. (2002). Investigation of the Feasibility of Achieving Euro V Heavy-Duty Emissions Limits with Advanced Emission Control Systems. Paper Code: F02E310, Fisita 2002 World Automotive Congress.
- Andersson S., Åkerlund C. and Blomqvist M. (2002). Low Pressure EGR Calibration Strategies for Reliable Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration on HDD Engines. SAE Paper 2002-01-2780.
- US EPA (2002). Highway Diesel Progress Review. EPA420-R-02-016, available at the Internet site of EPA at: www.epa.gov.
- Clean Diesel Independent Review Subcommittee. (2002). Meeting Technology Challenges for the 2007 Heavy-Duty Highway Diesel Rule. Report of the Clean Diesel Independent Review Subcommittee, Clean Air Act Advisory Committee, available at the Internet site of EPA at: www.epa.gov.
- Verbeek R., van Aken M. and Verkiel M. (2001). DAF Euro-4 Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with TNO EGR System and CRT Particulates Filter. SAE Paper 2001-01-1947.
- STT Engineering (1999). Project KOR in environmental zones.” STT Engineering, in Swedish.
- Chatterjee S., Conway R., Viswanathan S., Blomquist M., Klüsener B., Andersson S., (2003) ““NOx and PM Control from Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Using a Combination of Low Pressure EGR and Continuously Regenerating Diesel Particulate Filter” SAE Tehcnical Paper 2003-01-0048.
- Larsson, E (1999) “Final report on the project Development and Testing of RME as an Ignition Improver for Neat Bio-Ethanol as Diesel fuel-an Extension of the so Called Esterol Project” Report to the European Commission, the Alternative Program, According to Contract No. XVII/4.1030/A/98-597.
- Larsson.E “Nya Alkoholbränslen för tunga nyttofordon”(Translated English title “New Alcohol Fuels for Heavy-Duty Vehicles”-report includes an executive summary in English) Project No. 20279-1, Statens Energimyndighet, Swedish National Energy Administration, STEM.
- Nord K., Haupt D., (2001)“Statistical Evaluation of Rapeseed Methyl Ester as Ignition Improver in a 11 liters Ethanol Fueled Diesel Engine”, proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Technologies and Combustion for a Clean Environment, 2001, Oporto, Portugal.
- Desantes, J. M.,Arrègle, J., Molina, S., Lejeune, M. (2000). Influence of the EGR Rate, Oxygen Concentration and Equivalent Fuel/Air Ratio on the Combustion Behaviour and Pollutant Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine SAE paper 2000-01-1813.
- Tingvall, B., Johansson, Ö., Nordström, F., Pettersson, E., Hellberg, S. (1997) EGR på etanoldriven motor. Forskningsrapport 1997:12 från Luleå tekniska Universitet (In Swedish).
- Grägg, K. Ahlvik, P. (1999). Transient Emission Tests on an Ethanol Fuelled Bus Engine with and without EGR. MTC report 9608.
- Nord, K, Haupt, D. Ahlvik, P., Egebäck, K.E., Particulate Emissions from an Ethanol Fueled Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Equipped with EGR, Catalyst and DPF. SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1987.
- Heywood J.B. “Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals” McGraw and Hill, ISBN 007028637X.
- Simonsen H., Chomiak J. “Testing and Evaluation of Ignition Improvers for Ethanol in a DI Diesel Engine” SAE Technical Paper 952512.