This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Is Toluene a Suitable LIF Tracer for Fuel Film Measurements?
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 08, 2004 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Quantitative LIF measurements of liquid fuel films on the piston of direct-injected gasoline engines are difficult to achieve because generally these films are thin and the signal strength is low. Additionally, interference from scattered laser light or background signal can be substantial. The selection of a suitable fluorescence tracer and excitation wavelength plays an important role in the success of such measurements. We have investigated the possibility of using toluene as a tracer for fuel film measurements and compare it to the use of 3-pentanone. The fuel film dynamics in a motored engine at different engine speeds, temperatures and in-cylinder swirl levels is characterized and discussed.
CitationLin, M. and Sick, V., "Is Toluene a Suitable LIF Tracer for Fuel Film Measurements?," SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1355, 2004, https://doi.org/10.4271/2004-01-1355.
- Zhao, F. Lai, M.-C. Harrington, D. L. Automotive Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 1999 25 5 437 562.
- Stevens, E. Steeper, R. Piston Wetting in an Optical DISI Engine: Fuel Film, Pool Fires and Soot Generation SAE Technical Paper Series 2001-01-1203 2001
- Hentschel, W. Grote, A. Langer, O. Measurement of Wall Film Thickness in the Intake Manifold of a Standard Production SI Engine by a Spectroscopic Technique SAE Technical Paper Series 972832 1997
- Simon, N. Kraftstoffwandfilmuntersuchungen im Saugrohr eines Ottomotors mit Zentraleinspritzung 1992 12 141
- AVL, L. G. Wall Film Sensor for the Direct Measurement of the Fuel Wall Film Thickness in Intake Ports of Gasoline Engines 1994 Graz
- Shayler, P. J. Colechin, J. F. Scarisbrick, A. Fuel Film Evaporation and Heat Transfer in the Intake Port of an SI Engine SAE Technical Paper Series 961120 1996
- Wittig, S. Himmelsbach, J. Hallmann, M. Samenfink, W. Gemischaufbereitung und Wand-filmverhalten in Saugrohren von Ottomotoren; Teil: Experimentelle und numerische Grundlagen-Untersuchungen 1994 55 3 160 166
- Evers, L. W. Jackson, K. J. Liquid Film Thickness measurements by Means of Internally Reflected Light SAE Technical Paper Series 950002 1995
- Felton, P. G. Kyritsis, D. C. Fulcher, S. K. LIF Visualization of Liquid Fuel in the Intake Manifold during Cold Start SAE Technical Paper Series 952464 1995
- Witze, P. O. Green, R. M. LIF and Flame-Emission Imaging of Liquid Fuel Films and Pool Fire in an SI Engine During a Simulated Cold Start SAE Technical Paper Series 970886 1997
- Almkvist, G. Denbratt, I. Josefsson, G. Magnusson, I. Measurements of Fuel Film Thickness in the Intake Port of an S. I. Engine by Laser Induced Fluorescence SAE Technical Paper Series 952483 1995
- Kull, E. Wiltafsky, G. Stolz, W. Min, K. Holder, E. Two Dimensional Visualization of Liquid Layers on Transparent Walls Opt. Lett. 1997 22 9 645 647
- Johnen, T. Haug, M. Spray Formation Observation and Fuel Film Development Measurement in the Intake of a Spark Ignition Engine SAE Technical Paper Series 950511 1995
- Foucart, H. Habchi, C. LeCoz, J. Baritaud, T. Development of a Three Dimensional Model of Wall Fuel Liquid Film for internal Combustion Engines SAE Technical Paper Series 980133 1998
- LeCoz, J. Catalano, C. Baritand, T. Application of Laser Induced Fluorescence for Measuring the Thickness of Liquid Films on Transparent Wall 7th Int. Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics 1994 Lisbon, Portugal
- Drake, M. Fansler, T. Rosalik, M. Quantitative High Speed Imaging of Piston Fuel Films in Direct-Injection Engines using a Refractive-Index-Matching Technique 15th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems 2002 Madison, WI
- Grossmann, F. Monkhouse, P. B. Ridder, M. Sick, V. Wolfrum, J. Temperature and pressure dependences of the laser-induced fluorescence of gas-phase acetone and 3-pentanone Appl. Phys. B 1996 62 249 253
- Ossler, F. Alden, M. Measurements of picosecond laser-induced fluorescence from gas-phase 3- pentanone and acetone: Implications to combustion diagnostics Appl. Phys. B 1997 64 4 493 502
- Koch, J. D. Hanson, R. K. Temperature and excitation wavelength dependencies of 3-pentanone absorption and fluorescence for PLIF applications Appl. Phys. B 2003 76 319 324
- Frieden, D. Sick, V. A two-tracer LIF strategy for quantitative oxygen imaging in engines applied to study the influence of skip-firing on in-cylinder oxygen contents of an SIDI engine SAE Technical Paper Series, 2003( 2003-01-1114 )
- Han, D. Steeper, R. Examination of Iso-octane/Ketone Mixtures for Quantitative LIF Measurements in a DISI Engine SAE Technical Paper Series 2002-01-0837 2002
- Lin, M.-T. Sick, V. Mixture Evaporation Characteristics Prediction for LIF Measurements Using PSRK (Predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong) Equation of State SAE Transactions, Journal of Fuels & Lubricants 2002 1490 1499
- Reboux, J. Puechberty, D. A new approach of PLIF applied to fuel/air ratio measurement in the compressive stroke of an optical SI engine SAE Technical Paper Series 941988 1994
- Reboux, J. Puechberty, D. Dionnet, F. Study of Mixture Inhomogeneities and Combustion Development in a S.I. Engine Using a New Approach of Laser Induced Fluorescence (FARLIF) SAE Technical Paper Series 961205 1996
- Frieden, D. Sick, V. Investigation of the fuel injection, mixing and combustion processes in an SIDI engine using quasi-3D LIF imaging SAE Technical Paper Series, 2003( 2003-01-0068 )
- Koban, W. Schorr, J. Schulz, C. Oxygen distribution imaging with a novel two-tracer laser-induced fluorescence technique Appl. Phys. B 2002 74 111 114
- Zhao, H. Ladommatos, N. Optical Diagnostics for In-Cylinder Mixture Formation Measurement in IC Engines Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 1998 24 297 336
- Davy, M. Williams, P. Han, D. Steeper, R. Evaporation characteristics of the 3-pentanone/isooctane binary system. Exp. in Fluids 2003 35 92 99
- Reuss, D. L. Sick, V. Investigation of HCCI Combustion with Combined PLIF Imaging and Combustion Analysis 3rd Joint Meeting of the US Sections of the Combustion Institute 2003 Chicago, Ill
- Poling, B. Prausnitz, J. O'Connell, J. The Properties of Gases and Liquids 5th 2000 McGraw Hill
- Driscoll, D. Schmitt, R. Stevenson, W. Thin Flowing Liquid Film Thickness Measurement by Laser Induced Fluorescence Journal of Fluids Engineering 1992 107 112
- Steeper, R. Stevens, E. Characteristics of Combustion, Piston Temperatures, Fuel Sprays and Fuel-Air Mixing in a DISI Optical Engine SAE Technical Paper Series 2000-01-2900 2000
- Reuss, D. L. Funk, C. O. Sick, V. PIV flow field measurements The University of Michigan and General Motors