This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Advanced Modeling of Common Rail Injector Dynamics and Comparison with Experiments
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 03, 2003 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The aim of this work is to set up a methodology for simulating Common Rail high-pressure injectors based on coupling a lump-model with CFD two-phase multi-dimensional computations. The unit simulated is the Bosch injector. The injector lump-model resulted in the definition of the three sub-models for hydraulics, mechanics and electro-magnetics. The second-order differential governing equations have been solved in Matlab/Simulink environment and are properly coupled together with the one-dimensional partial differential equations that describe the unsteady pipe flow. A detailed library of thermo-mechanical properties for ISO-4113 oil and diesel fuel is included.
Cavitation effects on discharge coefficient in the main orifices were accounted for by using results from CFD steady two-phase flow simulations. The evaluation of the model capability was assessed by using detailed experiments carried out at different practical injector operating conditions. Instantaneous and integrated injected flow rate, and injector needle lift were measured and collected for comparison with simulation.
CFD steady computations revealed to be unavoidable in driving the lump-model toward a high reliability of injector performances over the whole range of injection pressures and energizing times.
CitationBianchi, G., Falfari, S., Parotto, M., and Osbat, G., "Advanced Modeling of Common Rail Injector Dynamics and Comparison with Experiments," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0006, 2003, https://doi.org/10.4271/2003-01-0006.
Computer Aided Engineering of Vehicle & Engine Systems & Components
Number: SP-1740 ; Published: 2003-03-03
Number: SP-1740 ; Published: 2003-03-03
- European Patent No. 0 426 205, 1993.
- Attractive Fuel Injection System for Passenger Car DI Engines”, SAE Paper 960870, 1996.
- Rail Injection System for Commercial Diesel Vehicles”, SAE Paper 970345, 1997.
- Renner, G., Koyannagi, K., and Maly, R.R.,“Effect of Common Rail Injector Design on the Emission Characteristics of Passenger Car DI Engines”, Proceedings of “The fourth International Symposium COMODIA 98”, pp.477-482, 1998.
- Ficarella, A., Laforgia, D., and Landriscina, V., “Evaluation of Instability Phenomena in a Common Rail Injection System for High Speed Diesel Engines”, SAE Paper 1999-01-0192, 1999.
- Imarisio, R., Ricco, M., Rossi Sebastiano, G.M., “Multiple Injection, a cost effective solution for emission reduction of Common Rail DI Diesel Engines”, Aachener Kolloquium Fahrzeug-und Motorentechnik 2000.
- Bianchi, G.M., Pelloni, P., Corcione, F.E., and Luppino, F., “Numerical Analysis of Passenger Car HSDI Diesel Engines with 2nd Generation of Common-Rail Injection Systems: The Effect of the Multiple Injections on Emissions”, SAE Paper 2001-01-1068, 2001.
- Imarisio, R., Rossi Sebastiano, G.M., “Potential of Future Common Rail DI Diesel Engines”, ATA vol.53, 2000.
- Bianchi, G.M., Falfari, S., Pelloni P., Filicori, F., Milani, M., “A Numerical and Experimental Study on the Possible Improvements of C.R. Injectors”, SAE 2002-01-0500, March 2002.
- Bianchi, G.M., Falfari, S., Pelloni P., Kong Song-Charng, Reitz, R.D., “Numerical Analysis of High Pressure Fast-Response C.R. Injector Dynamics”, SAE 2002-01-0213, March 2002.
- Digesu P., Ficarella, A., Laforgia, D., Bruni, G., and Ricco, M., “Diesel Electro-Injector: A Numerical Simulation Code”, SAE Paper 940193, 1994.
- Coppo M., Dongiovanni C., Negri C., “Numerical Analysis and Experimental Investigation of a Common Rail Type Diesel injector”, ASME ICE Division Fall Technical Session, New Orleans, September 2002.
- Bianchi, G.M., Pelloni, P., Filicori, F., and Vannini, G., “Optimization of the Solenoid valve Behavior in Common-Rail Injection Systems”, SAE Transactions-Section 4. Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, Vol.109, SAE 2000-01-2042, 2000.
- Catalano, L.A., Tondolo, V.A., Dadone, A., “Dynamic Rise of Pressure in the Common-Rail Fuel Injection System”, SAE 2002-01-0210, March 2002.
- Filicori, F., Lo Bianco, C.G., and Tonielli, A., “Modeling and Control Strategies for a Variable Reluctance Direct-Drive Motor”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 40, No. 1, February 1993, 1993.
- Desantes, J.M., Arrègle, J., Rodriguez, P.J., “Computational Model for Simulation of Diesel Injection Systems”, SAE Paper 1999-01-0915, 1999.
- Arcoumanis, C., Gavaises, M., French, B., “Effect of Fuel Injection Processes on the Structure of Diesel Sprays”, SAE Paper 970799, 1997.
- Soteriou, C., Andrews, R. and Smith, M., “ Direct Injection Diesel Sprays and the Effect of Cavitation and Hydraulic Flip on Atomization”, SAE Paper 950080, 1995.
- Arcoumanis, C.M., Badami, M., Flora, H. and Gavaises, M.,“Cavitation in Real-Size Multi-Hole Diesel Injector Nozzle”, SAE paper 2000-01-1249, 2000.
- Roth, H., Arcoumanis, C.M., and Gavaises, M.,“Cavitation Initiation, Its Development and Link with Flow Turbulence in Diesel Injector Nozzle”, SAE paper 2002-01-0214, 2002.
- Ganser, M.A.,“Common Rail Injector with Injection Rate Control”, SAE Paper 981927, 1998.
- Cantore, G., Mattarelli, E., Boretti., A.A., “Experimental and Theoretical Analysis od a Diesel Fuel Injection System”, SAE Paper 1999-01-0199, 1999.
- He Lu, Ruiz, F., “Effect of Cavitation on Flow and Turbulence in Plain Orifices for High-Speed” Atomization”, Atomization and Sprays, Vol.5, pp. 569-584, 1995.
- Chaves, H., Knapp, M., Kubitzek, A., Obermeier, F. And Schneider, T., “Experimental Study of Cavitation in the Nozzle Hole of Diesel Injectors Using Transparent Nozzles”, SAE Paper 950290, 1995.
- Catania, A.E., Dongiovanni, C., Mittica, A., Badami, M. and Lovisolo, F., “Numerical Analysis Versus Experimental Investigation of a Distributor-Type Diesel Fuel-Injection System”, Transaction of the ASME 1994, Vol. 116.
- Nurick, W.H., “Orifice Cavitation and Its Effects on Spray Mixing,”, J. Fluid Eng., Vol. 98, pp. 681-687,1976.
- Huh, K.Y. and Gosman, A.D., “A Phenomenological Model of Diesel Spray Atomization”, Pro. International Conference on Multiphase Flows '91, Tsukuba, Japan, 1991.
- Schimdt, D. P., and Corradini, M. L.“Analytical Prediction of Exit Flow in Cavitating Orifices”, Atomization and Sprays, Vol. 7, pp. 603-616, 1997.
- Von Kuensberg Sarre, C., Kong Song-Charng, Reitz, R.D., “Modeling the Effects of Injector Nozzle Geometry on Diesel Sprays”, SAE Paper 1999-01-0912, 1999.
- Bergwerk, W.,“Flow Patttern in Diesel Nozzle Spray Holes,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Vol. 173, pp.655-660, 1959.
- Arcoumanis, C., Flora, H., Gavaises, M., Kampanis, N., Horrocks, R., “Investigation of Cavitation in a Vertical Multi-Hole Injector”, SAE Paper 1999-01-0524, 1999.
- Idelchik, I. E.,“Handbook of Hydraulic resistance”, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1986.
- Schmidt, D.P., Rutland, C.J., Corradini, M.L., Roosen, P., Genge, O., “Cavitation in Two-Dimensional Asymmetric Nozzles”, SAE Paper 1999-01-0518, 1999.
- CD-Adapco -STAR-CD user manual, London.
- Dumont, N., Simonin, O., Habchi, C., “Numerical Simulation of Cavitating Flows in Diesel Injectors by a Homogeneous Equilibrium Modeling Approach”, CAV2001, session B6.005.
- Winklhofer, “Comprehensive Hydraulic and Flow Field Documentation in Model Throttle Experiment Under Cavitation Conditions”, Proceeding ILAS 2001, 2nd-6th Sept.2001, 17th Annual Conference of Liquid Atomization and Spray System, pp. 574-579, 2001
- Von Dirke, M., Krautter, A., Ostertag, J., Mennicken, M., Badock, C., “Simulation of Cavitating Flows in Diesel Injectors”, Oil & Gas Science and Technology, pp. 223-226, Vol.54, No.2, 1999.