This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Hydrodynamics of Diesel Particulate Filters
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 04, 2002 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Renewed interest in utilizing wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) in emission control systems necessitates gaining deeper engineering insight into their performance. Even though most key performance characteristics of a DPF such as pressure drop, regeneration, and light-off are highly driven by the flow motion through it, there appears to exist only minor and scattered information on the fundamental aspects of filter hydrodynamics. In this correspondence, many DPF hydrodynamic and particulate transport features such as frictional losses, inlet, exit, Darcy and Forchheimer pressure drop contributions, role of flow temperature and particulate loading and their individual pressure drop contributions are discussed. Discussions are also provided on different flow velocity components in a filter channel, their individual contributions to the filter pressure drop, and their laminar and turbulent flow regimes. Recent findings reported in the literature are also reviewed.
CitationMasoudi, M., "Hydrodynamics of Diesel Particulate Filters," SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-1016, 2002, https://doi.org/10.4271/2002-01-1016.
Diesel Exhaust Emission Control 2002: Particulate Filters
Number: SP-1673 ; Published: 2002-03-04
Number: SP-1673 ; Published: 2002-03-04
SAE 2002 Transactions Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
Number: V111-4 ; Published: 2003-09-15
Number: V111-4 ; Published: 2003-09-15
- Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment, SAE Special Publication, SP-1414, 1999.
- Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment, SAE Special Publication, SP-1313, 1998.
- CLEEERS Emission Control Simulation Tools Workshop, Department of Energy / Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, Tennessee, May 2001.
- Oh, S.H., MacDonald, S., Vaneman, G.L., Hegedus, L.L., “Mathematical Modeling of Fibrous Filters for Diesel Particulates - Theory and Experiment,” SAE - 1981- 810113.
- Konstandopoulos, A.G., Johnson, J.H., “Wall-Flow Diesel particulate Filters - Their Pressure Drop and Collection Efficiency”, SAE 1989 - 890405.
- Konstandopoulos, A.G., Kostoglou, M., Skaperdas, E., Papaioannou, E., Zarvalis D., and Kladopoulou E., “Fundamental Studies of Diesel Particulate Filters: Transient Loading, Regeneration and Aging”, SAE 2000-01-1016, 2000.
- Masoudi, M., Heibel, A., Then, P.M., “Predicting Pressure Drop of Wall-Flow Diesel Particulate Filters - Theory and Experiment,” SAE - 2000-01-0184.
- Masoudi, M., Konstandopoulos, A.G., Nikitidis, M.S., Skaperdas, E., Zarvalis, D., Kladopoulo, E., Altiparmakis, C., “Validation of a Model and Development of a Simulator for Predicting the Pressure Drop of Diesel Particulate Filters,” SAE - 2001 - 01 - 0911.
- Konstandopoulos, A.G., Skaperdas, E., Masoudi, M., “Inertial Contributions to the Pressure Drop of Diesel Particulate Filters,” SAE-2001-01-0909.
- Opris, C. “A Computational Model Based on the Flow, Filtration, Heat Transfer and Reaction Kinetics Theory in a Porous Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap,” Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan Technological University, (1997).
- Sorenson, S., Hoj, P., Stobbe, P., “Flow Characteristics of SiC Diesel Particulate Filter Materials,” SAE 940236, (1994).
- Versaevel, H.C., Rigaudeau, C., Noirot, R., Koltsakis, G.C., Stamatelos, A.M., “Some Empirical Observations on Diesel Particulate Filter Modeling and Comparison Between Simulations and Experiments”, SAE 2000-01-477.
- Gantawar, A.K., Opris, C.N., Johnson, J.H., “A Study of the Regeneration Characteristics of Silicon Carbide and Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters Using a Copper Fuel Additive,” SAE-1997-970187.
- Pattas, K.N., Samaras, Z.C., “Computational Simulation of the Ceramic Trap Transient Operation,” SAE-890403.
- Tan, J.C., Opris, C.N., Baumgard, K.J., Johnson, J.H., “A Study of the Regeneration Process in Diesel Particulate Traps Using a Copper Fuel Additive,” SAE - 1996 - 960136.
- Awara, A.E., Opris, C.N., Johnson, J.H., “A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Regeneration Process in a Silicon Carbide Particulate Trap Using a Copper Fuel Additive,” SAE - 1997 - 970188.
- Opris, C.N., Johnson, J.H., “A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Flow and Filtration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap,” SAE - 1998 - 980545.
- Konstandopoulos, A.G., Kostoglou, M., “A Mathematical Model of Soot Oxidation on Catalytically Coated Ceramic Filters,” Advances in Vehicle Control and Safety (AVCS), Amiens, France, July 1-3, 1998, p. 137-143.
- Suresh, A., Khan, A., Johnson, J., “An Experimental and Modeling Study of Cordierite Traps - Pressure Drop and Permeability of Clean and Particulate Loaded Traps,” SAE 2001 - 01 - 0476.
- Konstandopoulos, A.G., Kostoglou, M., Housiada, P., “Spatial Non-Uniformities in Diesel Particulate Trap Regeneration,” SAE - 2001-01-0908.
- Bohari, A.R., Mizuno, N., “Estimation of Particulate Loading in Diesel Particulate Filter by Using Cell Structure Neural Network,” Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Int. J. Series C, vol. 42, no. 2, 335-343, (1999).
- Konstandopoulos, A.G., Skaperdas, E., Masoudi, M., “Microstructural Properties of Soot Deposits in Diesel Particulate Traps,” SAE-2002, accepted for publication.
- Pauli, E., Lepperhoff, G., Pischinger, F., “The Description of the Regeneration Behavior of Diesel Particulate Traps with the Aid of a Mathematical Model,” SAE - 830180, 1983.
- Bissett, E.J., “Mathematical Model of the Thermal Regeneration of a Wall-Flow Monolith Diesel Particulate Filter,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 39, Nos. 7/8, 1233-1244, (1984).
- Bissett, E.J., Shadman, F., “Thermal Regeneration of Diesel-Particulate Filters,” AIChE, 31, No. 5, 753-758, (1985.)
- Konstandopoulos, A.G., Kostoglou, M., “Theory and Practice of Soot Particle Trap Operation,” Global Powertrain Congress, Stuttgart, Germany, Oct. 5-7, 1999.
- Kandylas, I., Stamatelos, A.M., “Modeling Catalytic Regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filters, Taking into Account Adsorbed Hydrocarbon Oxidation,” Indus. Eng. Chem. Res., vol. 38, no. 5, 1866-1876, (1999).
- Rumminger, M.D., Zhou, X., Balakrishnan, K., Edgar, B.L., Ezekoye, O.A. “Regeneration Behavior and Transient Thermal Response of Diesel Particulate Filters,” SAE - 2001 - 01 - 1342.
- Bear, J., Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media. Dover Publishing. (1988).
- Vafai, K., Hadim, H.A., Handbook of Porous Media. Marcel Dekker Publishing. (2000).
- Bourgeat, A.P., Carasso, C., Luckhaus, S., Mikelic, A., Mathematical Modeling of Flow Through Porous Media. Proceedings of the Conference, St Etienne, France, 22 - 26 May, 1995.
- Al-Hadhrami, Elliot, L., Ingham, D.B., Wen, X., “Analytical Solutions of Fluid Flows Through Composite Channels,” J. Porous Media, 4(2), 149-163, (2001).
- Rudraiah, N., “Nonlinear Study of Stratified Fluid Through Porous Media,” J. Porous Media, 4(2), 127-136, (2001).
- Moura Neto, F., Melo, S.T., “Darcy's Law for a Heterogeneous Porous Medium,” J. Porous Media, 4(2), 165-178, (2001).
- Kinney, R.E., “Fully Developed Frictional and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Laminar Flow in Porous Tubes”, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 11, 1393-1401, (1968).
- Raithby, G., “Laminar Heat Transfer in the Thermal Entrance Region of Circular Tubes and Two Dimensional Rectangular Ducts with Wall Suction and Injection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 14, 223-243, (1971).
- Hickman, D., Corning Incorporated, private communication.
- Bird, R.B., Stewart, W.E., Lightfoot, E.N., Transport Phenomena. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. publishing.
- Saad, M.A., “Thermodynamics for Engineers”, Prentice-Hall Publishing, New Jersey, (1966), p. 316.
- Reynolds, O., “On the Experimental Investigation of the Circumstances Which Detremine Whether the Motion of Water Shall be Direct or Sinuous, and the Law of Resistsnce in Parallel Channels,” Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A, vol. 174, pp. 935-982. (1883).
- “Turbulence”, Stewart J.W.. Fluid Mechnanics movie series, prepared by the National Science Founation.
- White, F.M., “Viscous Fluid Flow”, 2nd ed., McGraw Hill Publishing, New York, 1991, pp. 147-148.
- White, F.M., Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill Publishing, New York, 1986.