This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
CFD Optimization of DI Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions Using Variable Intake Valve Actuation with Boost Pressure, EGR and Multiple Injections
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 04, 2002 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
A computational optimization study was performed for a direct-injection diesel engine using a recently developed 1-D-KIVA3v-GA (1-Dimensional-KIVA3v-Genetic Algorithm) computer code. The code performs a full engine cycle simulation within the framework of a genetic algorithm (GA) code. Design fitness is determined using a 1-D (one-dimensional) gas dynamics code for the simulation of the gas exchange process, coupled with the KIVA3v code for three-dimensional simulations of spray, combustion and emissions formation.
The 1-D-KIVA3v-GA methodology was used to simultaneously investigate the effect of eight engine input parameters on emissions and performance for four cases, which include cases at 2500 RPM and 1000 RPM, with both simulated at high-load and low-load conditions. The input parameters explored include the start of injection (SOI) timing, injection duration, exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR), percentage of total fuel mass injected in first pulse of a split injection rate shape, dwell in between the pulse of the split injection, boost pressure, and finally the gas swirl and tumble ratios at intake valve closure. The predicted optimal results reduced the engine-out emissions along with a reduction of the specific fuel consumption compared to the baseline cases.
It was observed that the effect of the flow field (i.e., swirl and tumble ratios) at IVC on engine-out emissions was predominant only for the high-speed low-load case. Taking this in account, and with the idea of matching swirl and tumble ratios at IVC with the predicted optimal values of swirl and tumble ratios, a detailed flow analysis was performed using the VECTIS. Various intake valve lift profiles were analyzed to obtain different flow fields at IVC. Although it was not possible to achieve the exact value of swirl and tumble ratios predicted by the optimal design, the understanding generated of the effect of lift profile on fluid flow parameters provides important insight on flow field development.
CitationShrivastava, R., Hessel, R., and Reitz, R., "CFD Optimization of DI Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions Using Variable Intake Valve Actuation with Boost Pressure, EGR and Multiple Injections," SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0959, 2002, https://doi.org/10.4271/2002-01-0959.
Compression Ignition Combustion and In-Cylinder Diesel Particulates and Nox Control
Number: SP-1698 ; Published: 2002-03-04
Number: SP-1698 ; Published: 2002-03-04
- Amsden, A. A., “KIVA-3V: A Block -Structured KIVA Program for Engines with Vertical or Canted Valves,” Los Alamos National Laboratory Report NO. LA-13313-MS, 1997.
- Caroll, D. L., “Genetic Algorithms and Optimizing Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers,” Development in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 18, 411, 1996.
- Han, Z., Uludogan, A., Hampson, G., and Reitz, R. D., “Mechanisms of Soot and NOx Emission Reduction Using Multiple-Injection in a Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper 960633, 1996.
- Han, Z., Reitz, R. D., “Turbulence Modeling of Internal Combustion Engines Using RNG - Models,” Combustion Science and Technology, Vol. 106, pp.267-295, 1995.
- Han, Z., Reitz, R. D., “A Temperature Wall Function Formulation for Variable Density Turbulence Flows with Application to Engine Convective Heat transfer Modeling”, Int. Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 40, pp. 613-625, 1997.
- Heywood, J. B., Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 1988.
- Hiroyasu, H. and Kadota, T., “Models for Combustion and Formation of Nitric Oxide and Soot in DI Diesel Engines,” SAE paper 760129, 1976.
- Kong, S. -C., Han Z., and Reitz, R. D., “The Development and Application of a Diesel Ignition and Combustion Model for Multidimensional Engine Simulation,” SAE paper 950278, 1995.
- Nagle, J. and Strickland-Constable, R. F., “Oxidation of Carbon between 1000-2000 C,” Proc. Of the Fifth Carbon Conf., 1, 154, 1962.
- Patterson, M. A., Kong, S. -C., Hampson, G. J. and Reitz, R. D., “Modeling the Effects of Fuel Injection Characteristics on Diesel Engine Soot and NOx Emissions,” SAE paper 940523, 1994.
- Pilley, A. D., Beaumont, A. J., Robinson, D. R. and Mowll D., “Design of Experiments for Optimization of Engines to Meet Future Emissions Targets,” 27th Int. Symposium on Automotive Technology and Automation, ISATA Paper 94ENO14, 1994.
- Pierpont, D. A., and Reitz, R. D., “Effects of Injection Pressure and Nozzle Geometry on D. I. Diesel Emissions and Performance,” SAE 950604, 1995.
- Reitz, R. D., “Modeling Atomization Processes in High-Pressure Vaporizing Sprays,” Atomization and Spray Technology, Vol. 3, pp. 309-337, 1987.
- Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd., “VECTIS Computational Fluid Dynamics Documentation Users Manual Version 3.4”, Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd. Of Bridge Works, Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex, England, 1999.
- Richards, K., Bianchi, G. M., and Reitz, R. D., “Effect of Initial Conditions in Multidimensional Combustion Simulations of HSDI Engines,” SAE, 1999-01-1180, 1999.
- Senecal, P. K., “Development of Methodology for Internal Combustion Engine Design Using Multi-Dimensional Modeling with Validating Through Experiments,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2000.
- Senecal, P.K, and Reitz, R. D., “Simultaneous Reduction of Engine Emissions and Fuel Consumption Using Genetic Algorithms and Multi-Dimensional Spray and Combustion Modeling,” SAE 2000-01-1890, 2000.
- Shrivastava, R., “CFD Optimization of DI Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions using Variable Intake Valve Actuation with Boost Pressure, EGR and Multiple Injections,” M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2001.
- Tanin, K.V., Wickman, D.D, Montgomery, D. T., Das, S. and Reitz, R. D., “The influence of Boost Pressure on Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a Heavy-Duty Single -Cylinder D. I. Diesel Engine,” SAE 1999-01-0840, 1999.
- Wickman, D. D., Senecal, P. K., and Reitz, R. D., “Diesel Engine Combustion Chamber Geometry Optimization using Genetic Algorithms and Multi-Dimensional Modeling,” SAE paper 2001-01-0547, 2001.
- Yi, Y., Hessel, R., Zhu, G. S., Reitz, R., “The influence of physical Input Parameter Uncertainties on Multidimensional Model Predictions of Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions,” SAE paper 2000-01-1178, 2000.
- Zhu, Y., and Reitz, R. D., “A 1-D Gas Dynamics Code for Subsonic and Supersonic Flows Applied to Predict EGR Levels in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine,” International Journal of Vehicle Design, 22, 227, 1999.