This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Performance and Analysis of a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with CAI Combustion
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 04, 2002 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion was realised in a production type 4-stroke 4-cylinder gasoline engine without intake charge heating or increasing compression ratio. The CAI engine operation was achieved using substantially standard components modified only in camshafts to restrict the gas exchange process
The engine could be operated with CAI combustion within a range of load (0.5 to 4 bar BMEP) and speed (1000 to 3500 rpm). Significant reductions in both specific fuel consumption and CO emissions were found. The reduction in NOx emission was more than 93% across the whole CAI range. Though unburned hydrocarbons were higher under the CAI engine operation.
In order to evaluate the potential of the CAI combustion technology, the European NEDC driving cycle vehicle simulation was carried out for two identical vehicles powered by a SI engine and a CAI/SI hybrid engine, respectively. The simulation results showed only moderate improvement in fuel economy and exhaust emissions because of low utilisation of CAI during the drive cycle.
In order to take full advantage of the CAI combustion technology, detailed analyses were carried out on the engine's performance, heat release and combustion characteristics, emissions and the effect of gas exchange processes. These analyses showed that the engine's performance and emissions were mainly affected by the trapped residual fractions and residual temperature. In addition, the backflow was found to affect the combustion and emission as well.
CitationZhao, H., Li, J., Ma, T., and Ladommatos, N., "Performance and Analysis of a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with CAI Combustion," SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0420, 2002, https://doi.org/10.4271/2002-01-0420.
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (Hcci) Combustion 2002
Number: SP-1688 ; Published: 2002-03-04
Number: SP-1688 ; Published: 2002-03-04
- Ryan, T. W., Callahan, T. J., Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition of Diesel Fuel, SAE paper 961160.
- Gray, A. W., Ryan, T. W., Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) of Diesel Fuel, SAE Paper 971676.
- Suzuki, H., Koike, N., Odaka, M., Combustion Control Method of Homogeneous Charge Diesel Engines, SAE Paper 980509.
- Yokota, H., Nakajima, H., Kakegawa, T., A New Concept for Low Emission Diesel Combustion, SAE Paper 981933.
- Onishi, S., Hong Jo, S., Shoda, K., Do Jo, P., and Kato, S., Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC) - A New Combustion Process for Internal Combustion Engines, SAE Paper 790501, 1979.
- Noguchi, M., Tanaka, Y., Tanaka, T., and Takeuchi, Y., A Study on Gasoline Engine Combustion by Observation of Intermediate Reactive Products during Combustion, SAE Paper 790840, 1979.
- Najt, P. M., and Foster, D. E., Compression-Ignited Homogenous Charge Combustion”, SAE Paper 830264, 1983.
- Thring, R. H., Homogenous Charge Compression-Ignition (HCCI) Engines, SAE Paper 892068, 1989.
- Oakley, A. Zhao, H., Ma, T. and Ladommatos, N., Experimental Studies on Controlled Auto-ignition (CAI) Combustion of Gasoline in a 4-Stroke Engine, SAE Paper 2001-01-1030.
- Oakley, A. Zhao, H., Ma, T. and Ladommatos, N., Dilution Effects on the Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion of Hydrocarbon and Alcohol Fuels, SAE Paper 2001-01-3606.
- Christensen, M., Hultqvist, A., and Johansson, B., Demonstrating the Multi Fuel Capability of a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition Engine with Variable Compression Ratio, SAE Paper 1999-01-3679, 1999
- Flowers, D., Aceves, S., Smith, R., Torres, J., Girard, J., and Dibble, R., HCCI in a CFR Engine: Experiments and Detailed Kinetic Modelling, SAE Paper 2000-01-0328, 2000
- Lavy, J., Dabadie, J., Angelberger, C., Duret, P. (IFP), Willand, J., Juretzka, A., Schaflein, J. (Daimler-Chrysler), Ma, T. (Ford), Lendresse, Y., Satre, A. (PSA Peugeot Citroen), Schulz, C., Kramer, H. (PCI - Heidelberg University), Zhao, H., Damiano, L.(Brunel University), “Innovative Ultra-low NOx Controlled Auto-Ignition Combustion Process for Gasoline Engines: the 4-SPACE Project”, SAE Paper 2000-01-1837, 2000.
- Law, D., Allen, J. Kemp, D. and Williams, P., 4-stroke active combustion (controlled auto-ignition) investigation using a single cylinder engine with Lotus active valve train (AVT), International conference on 21st century emissions technology, C588/006/2000, IMechE, 2000
- Aceves, S. M., Flowers, D. L., Westbrook, C. K., Smith, J. R., Pitz, W. J., Dibble, R., Christensen, M., and Johansson, B., A Multi-Zone Model for Prediction of HCCI Combustion and Emissions, SAE Paper 2000-01-0327, 2000.
- Aceves, S. M., Flowers, D. L., Matinez-Frias, J., Westbrook, C. K., Smith, J. R., Pitz, W. J., Dibble, R., Wright, J., Akinyemi, W., and Hessel, R., A Sequential Fluid-Mechanic Chemical-Kinetic Model of Propane HCCI Combustion, SAE Paper 2001-01-1027, 2001.
- Kong, S., Marriott, C., Reitz, R., and Christensen, M., Modelling and Experiments of HCCI Engine Combustion Using Detailed Chemical Kinetics with Multidimensional CFD, SAE Paper 2001-01-1026.
- Zhao, H., Peng, Z., Williams, J., and Ladommatos, N., Understanding the Effects of Recycled Burnt Gases on the Controlled Autoignition (CAI) Combustion in 4-Stroke Gasoline Engines, SAE Paper 2001-01-3607, 2001.
- Stockinger, M., Schapertons, H., and Huhlmann, P., Investigations on a Gasoline Engine Working with Self-Ignition by Compression, MTZ Vole.53, No. 2 pp.80-85, 1992.
- Olsson, J., Erlandsson, O., and Johansson, B., Experiments and Simulation of a Six-Cylinder Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine, SAE Paper 2000-01-2867, 2000.
- Olsson, J., Tunestal, P. and Johansson, B., Closed-loop Control of an HCCI Engine, SAE Paper 2001-01-1031, 2001.
- Li, J., Zhao, H., Ma, T., and Ladommatos, N., Research and development of controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion in a 4-stroke multi-cylinder gasoline engine, SAE paper 2001-01-3608
- Duret, P. and Lavy, J., Process for controlling self-ignition in a 4-stroke engine, US patent 6 082 342
- Iida, N., Ichikura, T., Kase, K., Enomoto, Y., Self-ignition and Combustion Stability in a Methanol Fuelled Low Heat Rejection Ceramic ATAC Engine -Analysis of Cyclic Variation at High Wall Temperatures and Lean -Burn Operation, JSAE Review Vol.18, pp.233-240, 1997.