This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Material Properties for Modeling Traumatic Aortic Rupture
Published November 01, 2001 by The Stapp Association in United States
Annotation ability available
Event: STAPP Car Crash Conference
Traumatic aortic rupture is a significant cause of fatalities in frontal automobile crashes. However, such ruptures are difficult to reproduce experimentally in cadaveric surrogates, and it is difficult to observe dynamic aortic response in situ. So, the aortic injury mechanism or mechanisms remains in dispute. This study is a staged investigation of the physical parameters and mechanisms of human aortic rupture. The investigation includes both experimental study of local and global viscoelastic properties and failure properties of aortas using aortic tissue samples, excised aortas in vitro, and whole human aortas in situ in cadaver thoraxes. This study is the first phase in a staged programme to develop a finite element computer model of aorta injury to examine the mechanisms of aorta injury in automobile crashes.
The high-rate local biaxial properties of porcine aorta tissue are determined from samples taken from the isthmus region, the most common area of failure in traumatic aorta injury. Using porcine aortas, similar in structure and physical characteristics to human aortic tissue, biaxial oscillatory response is determined at large strains and high strain rates. From this data, a hyperelastic material model with a failure threshold is developed that is in good agreement with local property data determined from oscillatory tests at 20 Hz and 65 Hz.
Further, whole aorta tests are performed using pressure application with aortic pressure time histories similar in onset rate to those seen in cadaveric sled testing. These tests establish the ultimate stretch ratio and strain to failure for human aorta specimens. The specimens show no significant difference in response between the in situ tests and the in vitro tests. This indicates either that the internal thoracic boundary conditions may not be important in the stress and strain level of aorta failure or that the number of in situ tests (3) was too small to establish a difference. A Weibull survival analysis of the whole aorta failure tests shows significant dependence of aortic ultimate stretch ratio on age. A 50% risk of failure is 852 kPa in the circumferential direction and 426 kPa in the longitudinal direction. For pressure, the 50% risk of failure for all the tests is approximately 101 kPa. This increases to greater than 120 kPa for subjects below 68 years.
- C. R. Bass - University of Virginia Automobile Safety Laboratory
- K. Darvish - University of Virginia Automobile Safety Laboratory
- B. Bush - University of Virginia Automobile Safety Laboratory
- J. R. Crandall - University of Virginia Automobile Safety Laboratory
- S. C. M. Srinivasan - University of Virginia Automobile Safety Laboratory
- C. Tribble - University of Virginia Automobile Safety Laboratory
- S. Fiser - University of Virginia Automobile Safety Laboratory
- L. Tourret - University of Virginia Automobile Safety Laboratory
- J. C. Evans - University of Virginia Automobile Safety Laboratory
- J. Patrie - University of Virginia Automobile Safety Laboratory
- C. Wang - University of Virginia Automobile Safety Laboratory
CitationBass, C., Darvish, K., Bush, B., Crandall, J. et al., "Material Properties for Modeling Traumatic Aortic Rupture," SAE Technical Paper 2001-22-0006, 2001, https://doi.org/10.4271/2001-22-0006.
- [Corliss, 1976] Corliss, CE: Patten’s human embryology. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1976.
- [Creasy, 1997] Creasy JD, Chiles C, Routh WD, Dyer RB. Overview of traumatic injury of the thoracic aorta. Radiographics, 17: 27–45, 1997
- [Dellman, 1981] Dellman, Horst-Dieter, and Brown, Esther M. Textbook of Veterinary Histology. Second Edition. Philadelphia, Lea and Febiger, 1981.
- [Fawcett, 1994] Fawcett, Don W.: A Textbook of Histology. Twelfth Edition. New York, Chapman and Hall, 1994.
- [Feczko, 1992] Feczko JD, Lynch L, Pless JE, Clark MA, McClain J, Hawley DA. An autopsy case review of 142 nonpenetrating (blunt) injuries of the aorta. J Trauma, 33(6): 846–849, 1992
- [Fung, 1979] Fung, Y. C., Fronek, K., and Patitucci, P. Pseudoelasticity of Arteries and the Choice of its Mathematical Expression, J. Physiology Vol. 235, No. 5, pp. H620–H631, 1979.
- [Groskin, 1992] Groskin SA. Selected topics in chest trauma. Radiology, 183: 605–617, 1992.
- [Katyal, 1997] Katyal D, McLellan BA, Brenneman FD, Boulanger BR, Sharkey PW, Waddell JP. Lateral impact motor vehicle collisions: significant cause of blunt traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta. J Trauma, 42(5): 769–772, 1997.
- [Klotz, 1932] Klotz O, Simpson W. Spontaneous rupture of the aorta. Am J Med Sci, 184: 455–473, 1932.
- [Lundevall, 1964] Lundevall J. Traumatic rupture of the aorta with special reference to road accidents. Acta path et microbiol scandinav, 62: 29–46, 1964.
- [Mohan, 1983] Mohan, D., and Melvin, J. W. Failure Properties of Passive Human Aortic Tissue. II-Biaxial Tension Tests, J. Biomechanics, 16(1):31–44, 1983.
- [Sevitt, 1977] Sevitt S. The mechanisms of traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta. Br J Surg, 64: 166–173, 1977.
- [Skrum, 1999] Shkrum MJ, McClafferty KJ, Green RN, Nowak ES, Young JG. Mechanisms of aortic injury in fatalities occurring in motor vehicle collisions. J Forensic Sci, 44(1): 44–56, 1999.
- [Shuford, 1974] Shuford, WH, Sybers, RG: The aortic arch and its malformations, with emphasis on the angiographic features. Springfield, Thomas, 1974.
- [Strassman, 1947] Strassman G. Traumatic rupture of the aorta. Am Heart J, 33:508–515, 1947.
- [Symbas, 1973] Symbas PN, Tyres DH, Ware RE, et al. Traumatic rupture of the aorta. Ann Surg, 178: 6, 1973.
- [Viano, 1983] Viano, DC. Biomechanics of nonpenetrating aortic trauma: a review. Proceedings of the 27th Stapp Car Crash Conference, 109–114, 1983.
- [Voigt, 1967] Voigt EG. Die biomechanik stumpfer brustverletzungen besonders vom thorax, aorta und herz. Unfallheilkunde 96, 1967.
- [Weiss, 1988] Weiss, Leon: Cell and Tissue Biology, A Textbook of Histology. Sixth Edition. Baltimore, Urban and Schwarzenberg, Inc., 1988.
- [Williams, 1994] Williams JS, Graff JA, Uku JM, Steinig JP. Aortic injury in vehicular trauma. Ann Thorac Surg, 57: 726–730, 1994.
- [Zehnder, 1956] Zehnder MA. Delayed post-traumatic rupture of the aorta in a young healthy individual after closed injury. Mechanical-etiological considerations. Angiology, 7: 252–267, 1957.
- [Zehnder, 1960] Zehnder, MA. Accident mechanism and accident mechanics of the aortic rupture in the closed thorax trauma. Thoraxchirurgie and vasculaere chirurgie, 8, 1960.