A NEW NECK INJURY CRITERION CANDIDATE FOR REAR-END COLLISIONS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SHEAR FORCES AND BENDING MOMENTS
Published June 04, 2001 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
Annotation ability available
It is generally accepted today that the cervical spine of a car occupant who is involved in a low-speed rear end impact may suffer from soft tissue neck injuries leading to long-term impairment. Therefore, to assess the risk of sustaining such injuries is a major issue in traffic safety, and various neck injury criteria are being discussed for this purpose.
In this study a new candidate for such an injury predictor, called Nkm, was developed. Results from a total of 37 sled tests with various car front seat models were evaluated to validate the new criterion. These results indicate that the new criterion offers the possibility to assess the kinematic phase of forward motion of a rear-end collision. In contrast, the NICmax which was also calculated for these tests allows to evaluate the retraction phase only. Furthermore, the influence of the seat design on its protective potential could be related to the Nkm values obtained.
- K.-U. Schmitt - 1 Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland 2 Working Group on Accident Mechanics, University and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland
- M. H. Muser - 1 Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland 2 Working Group on Accident Mechanics, University and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland
- P. Niederer - 1 Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland 2 Working Group on Accident Mechanics, University and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland
CitationSchmitt, K., Muser, M., and Niederer, P., "A NEW NECK INJURY CRITERION CANDIDATE FOR REAR-END COLLISIONS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SHEAR FORCES AND BENDING MOMENTS," SAE Technical Paper 2001-06-0175, 2001.
- Boström O, Svensson M, Aldman B, Hansson H, Håland Y, Lövsund P, Seeman T, Suneson A, Säljö A, Örtengren T (1996): A new neck injury criterion candidate based on injury findings in the cervical spinal ganglia after experimental neck extension trauma; Proc. IRCOBI Conf.; pp. 123–136
- Boström O, Bohmann K, Håland Y, Kullgren A, Krafft M (2000): New AIS1 long-term neck injury criteria candidates based on real frontal crash analysis; Proc. IRCOBI Conf.; pp. 249–264
- Deng B, Luan F, Begeman P, Yang K, King A, Tashman S (2000): Testing shear hypothesis of whiplash injury using experimental and analytical approaches, in Frontiers in Whiplash Trauma (Eds. Yoganandan N. and Pintar F.), IOS Press, Amsterdam
- Ferrari R (1999): The whiplash encyclopedia; Aspen Publishers Inc.; Gaithersburg
- Goldsmith W, Ommaya A (1984): Head and neck injury criteria and tolerance levels; in The biomechanics of impact trauma (Eds. Aldman and Chapon), Elsevier Science Pub., Amsterdam, pp. 149–187
- Kleinberger M, Sun E, Eppinger R, Kuppa S, Saul R (1998): Development of improved injury criteria for the assessment of advanced automotive restraint systems, NHTSA report, September 1998
- Klinich KD et al. (1996): NHTSA Child Injury Protection Team, Techniques for developing child dummy protection reference values, NHTSA Docket No. 74–14
- Linder A, Schmitt KU, Walz F, Ono K (2000): Neck modelling for rear-end impact simulations - a comparison between a multi body system (MBS) and a finite element (FE) model, Proc. IRCOBI Conf., Montpellier, pp. 491–494
- Lundell B, Jakobsson L, Alfredsson B, Lindström M, Simonsson L (1998): The WHIPS seat - a car seat for improved protection against neck injuries in rear-end impacts, Proc. 16th ESV Conference, Paper No. 98-S7-O-08
- Mertz H, Patrick L (1971, 1993): Strength and response of the human neck, in Biomechanics of impact injury and injury tolerances of the head-neck complex (Ed. Backaitis S.), pp. 821- 846SAE 710855.
- Muser M, Walz F, Zellmer H (2000): Biomechanical significance of the rebound phase in low speed rear end impacts; Proc. IRCOBI Conf.; pp 411–424
- Panjabi M, Wang J, Delson N (1999): Neck injury criterion based on intervertebral motions and its evaluation using an instrumented neck dummy; Proc. IRCOBI Conf.; pp. 179–190
- Parkin S, Mackay GM, Hassan AM, Graham R (1995): REar end collisions and seat performance - to yield or not to yield, Proc. 39th Conf. AAAM, pp. 231–244
- Penning L (1992): Accerleration injury of the cervical spine by hypertranslation of the head (Part I+II), Eur. Spine J, Vol. 1, pp. 7–19
- Prasad P, Kim A, Weerappuli D (1997): Biofidelity of anthropomorphic test devices for rear impact, Proc. 41st STAPP Conf., pp. 387–415
- Walz F, Muser MH (1995): Biomechanical aspects of cervical spine injuries, SAE International Congress and Exhibition, Detroit, Michigan, SAE 950658 in SP-1077
- Wiklund Ch, Larsson H (1998): Saab active head restraint (SAHR) - seat design to reduce the risk of neck injuries in rear impacts, SAE paper 980297
- Yang KH, Begeman PC, Muser MH, Niederer P, Walz F (1997): On the role of cervical facet joints in rear end impact neck injury mechanism, SP-1226, SAE 970497, pp. 127–129