This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
The Evolution of Flow Structures and Turbulence in a Fired HSDI Diesel Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 24, 2001 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Event: Spring Fuels & Lubricants Meeting & Exhibition SAE International Fall Fuels & Lubricants Meeting & Exhibition
In-cylinder fluid velocity is measured in an optically accessible, fired HSDI engine at idle. The velocity field is also calculated, including the full induction stroke, using multi-dimensional fluid dynamics and combustion simulation models. A detailed comparison between the measured and calculated velocities is performed to validate the computed results and to gain a physical understanding of the flow evolution. Motored measurements are also presented, to clarify the effects of the fuel injection process and combustion on the velocity field evolution.
The calculated mean in-cylinder angular momentum (swirl ratio) and mean flow structures prior to injection agree well with the measurements. Modification of the mean flow by fuel injection and combustion is also well captured. Substantial changes in the tangential velocity near the spray path are observed during the fuel injection event and, after combustion, a radial profile of the mean tangential velocity that favors turbulence production is developed within the bowl. RMS fluctuations show significant deviations between measurements and predictions over technologically important portions of the cycle. Significant increases in measured fluctuations-in the tangential component near the fuel spray path at start of injection (SOI), and in both the radial and tangential components within the bowl after combustion-are absent from the model predictions. Measured fluctuations are anisotropic, and suggest turbulence production enhancing the tangential fluctuations near SOI, and enhancing the radial fluctuations after combustion.
- Paul C. Miles - Sandia National Laboratories
- Marcus Megerle - University of Michigan
- Volker Sick - University of Michigan
- Keith Richards - University of Wisconsin - Engine Research Center
- Zac Nagel - University of Wisconsin - Engine Research Center
- Rolf D. Reitz - University of Wisconsin - Engine Research Center
CitationMiles, P., Megerle, M., Sick, V., Richards, K. et al., "The Evolution of Flow Structures and Turbulence in a Fired HSDI Diesel Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-3501, 2001, https://doi.org/10.4271/2001-01-3501.
- Brandl, F., Reverencic, I., Cartellieri, W., and Dent, J.C., “Turbulent Air Flow in the Combustion Bowl of a D.I. Diesel Engine and its Effect on Engine Performance,” SAE Paper No. 790040, SAE Trans. v.88, 1979.
- Monaghan, M.L. and Pettifer, H.F., “Air Motion and its Effect on Diesel Performance and Emissions,” SAE Paper No. 810255, SAE Trans. v.90, 1981.
- Gosman, A.D., “Multidimensional Modeling of Cold Flows and Turbulence in Reciprocating Engines,” SAE Paper No. 850344, SAE Trans. v.94, 1985.
- Gosman, A.D., “Flow Processes in Cylinders,” in Thermodynamics and Gas Dynamics of Internal Combustion Engines, Vol. 2, eds. Horlock, J.H. and Winterbone, D., Oxford University Press, 1986.
- Rask, R.B., and Saxena, V., “Influence of Geometry on Flow in the Combustion Chamber of a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine,” in International Symposium on Flows in Internal Combustion Engines, eds. Uzkan, T., Tiederman, W.G., and Novak, J.M., ASME, New York, 1985.
- Fansler, T.D., and French, D.T., “Swirl, Squish and Turbulence in Stratified-Charge Engines: Laser Velocimetry Measurements and Implications for Combustion,” SAE Paper No. 870371, SAE Trans. v.96, 1987.
- Cipolla, G., Puglisi, A., and Vafidis, C., “In-Cylinder Velocity Field Measurements in a Motored Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 870373, 1987.
- Arcoumanis, C., Whitelaw, J.H., Hentschel, W., and Schindler, K-P, “Flow and Combustion in a Transparent 1.9 Liter Direct Injection Diesel Engine,” Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs., Vol. 208, pp. 191-205, 1994.
- Payri, F., Desantes, J.M., and Pastor, J.V., “LDV Measurements of the Flow Field Inside the Combustion Chamber of a 4-Valve D.I. Diesel Engine with Axisymmetric Piston-Bowls,” Exp. In Fluids, Vol. 22, pp.118-128, 1996.
- Schäpertöns, H., and Thiele, F., “Three Dimensional Computations for Flowfields in DI Piston Bowls,” SAE Paper No. 860463, SAE Trans. v.95, 1986.
- Wakisaka, T., Shimamoto, Y., and Isshiki, Y., “Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of In-Cylinder Flows in Reciprocating Engines,” SAE Paper No. 860464, SAE Trans. v.95, 1986.
- Uchida, N., Shimokawa, K., Kudo, Y., and Shimoda, M., “Combustion Optimization by Means of Common Rail Injection System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper No. 982679, 1998.
- Lin, L., Shulin, D., Jin, X., Jinxiang, W., and Xiaohong, G., “Effects of Combustion Chamber Geometry on In-Cylinder Air Motion and Performance in a DI Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2000-01-0510, 2000.
- Matsuoka, S., Kamimoto, T., Urushihara, T., Mochimaru, Y., and Morita, H., “LDA Measurement and a Theoretical Analysis of the In-Cylinder Air Motion in a DI Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 850106, SAE Trans. v.94, 1985.
- Sugiyama, K., “LDV Measurement and Simulation of Air Motion in a Re-entrant Combustion Bowl for a DI Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 865008, 1986.
- Béard, P., Mokaddem, K., and Baritaud, T., “Measurement and Modeling of the Flow-Field in a DI Diesel Engine: Effects of Piston Bowl Shape and Engine Speed,” SAE Paper No. 982587, SAE Trans. v.107, 1998.
- Bo, T., Clerides, D., Gosman, A.D., and Theodossopoulos, P., “Prediction of the Flow and Spray Processes in an Automobile DI Diesel Engine,” Sae Paper No. 970882, SAE Trans. v.106, 1997.
- Kamimoto, T., Miyairi, Y., Nagakura, K., and Matsuoka, S., “Measurement of Flow Velocity in Diesel Flames by a Cross-Correlation Method,” SAE Paper No. 820357, 1982.
- Ikegami, M., Shioji, M., Kimoto, T., “Diesel Combustion and the Pollutant Formation as Viewed from Turbulent Mixing Concept,” SAE Paper No. 880425, SAE Trans. v.97, 1988.
- Yamaguchi, I., Nakahira, T., Komori, M., and Kobayashi, S., “An Image Analysis of High Speed Combustion Photographs for D.I. Diesel Engine with High Pressure Fuel Injection,” SAE Paper No. 901577, SAE Trans. v.99, 1990.
- Winterbone, D.E., Sun, J., and Yates, D.A., “A Study of Diesel Flame Movement by Using the Cross-Correlation Method,” SAE Paper No. 930979, 1993.
- Wigley, G., Patterson, A.C., and Renshaw, J., “Swirl Velocity Measurements in a Firing Production Diesel Engine by Laser Anemometry,” Proc. ASME Symp. on Fluid Mech. of Comb. Systems, 1981.
- Spicher, U., Velji, A., Huynh, N.H., and Kruse, F., “An Experimental Study of Combustion and Fluid Flow in Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper No. 872060, SAE Trans. v.96, 1987.
- Henein, N.A. and Lai, M.-C. Private communication, 2000.
- Dec, J.E. “A Conceptual Model of DI Diesel Combustion Based on Laser-Sheet Imaging”, SAE Paper No. 970873, SAE Trans. v.106, 1997.
- Amsden, A. A., “KIVA-3V: A Block-Structured KIVA Program for Engines with Vertical or Canted Valves,” Los Alamos National Laboratory Report N0. LA-13313-MS, 1997.
- Bianchi, G.M., Richards, K., and Reitz, R.D., “Effects of Initial Conditions in Multidimensional Combustion Simulations of HSDI Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper No. 1999-01-1180, 1999.
- Han, Z and Reitz, R. D., “Turbulence Modeling of Internal Combustion Engines Using k-ε Models,” Combust. Sci. and Tech., 106, 267, 1995.
- Han, Z. and Reitz, R. D., “A Temperature Wall Function Formulation for Variable-Density Turbulence Flows with Application to Engine Convective Heat Transfer Modeling,” Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer, 40, 613, 1997.
- Xin, J., Ricart, L. and Reitz, R.D., “Computer Modeling of Diesel Spray Atomization and Combustion,” Combustion Sci. and Tech., 137, pp.171-194, 1998.
- Rutland, C. J., Eckhause, J., Hampson, G., Hessel, R., Kong, S., Patterson, M., Pierpont, D., Sweetland, P., Tow, T. and Reitz, R. D., “Toward Predictive Modeling of Diesel Engine Intake Flow, Combustion, and Emissions,” SAE Paper No. 941897, SAE Trans. v.103, 1994.
- Kong, S.-C., Han, Z. and Reitz, R. D., “The Development and Application of a Diesel Ignition and Combustion Model for Multidimensional Engine Simulation,” SAE Paper No. 950278, SAE Trans. v.104, 1995.
- Miles, P.C., Megerle, M., Sick, V., Richards, K., Nagel, Z., Reitz, R., “Measurement and Modeling of Large-Scale Flow Structures and Turbulence in a High-Speed Direct-Injection Diesel Engine,” Proc. of the Fifth Intl. Symp. on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in IC Engines, COMODIA 2001, July 1-4, Nagoya, Japan, 2001.
- Woschni, G., “A Universally Applicable Equation for the Instantaneous Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Internal Combustion Engine,” SAE Paper No. 670931, SAE Trans., vol. 76, 1977.
- Sihling, K. and Woschni, G., “Experimental Investigation of the Instantaneous Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Cylinder of a High Speed Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 790833, 1979.
- Miles, P.C., “The Influence of Swirl on HSDI Diesel Combustion at Moderate Speed and Load,” SAE Paper No. 2000-01-1829, 2000.
- Vafidis, C., “Influence of Induction Swirl and Piston Configuration on Air Flow in a Four-Stroke Model Engine,” Proc. Instn. Mech, Engrs., Vol 198C, No. 8, 1984.
- Auriemma, M., Corcione, F.E., Macchioni, R., and Valentino, G., “Interpretation of Air Motion in Reentrant Bowl in-Piston Engine by Estimating Reynolds Stresses,” SAE Paper No. 980482, 1998.
- Ahmadi-Befrui, A., Brandstätter, W., Pitcher, G., Troger, C., and Wigley, G., “Simulationsmodell zur Berechnung der Luftbewegung in Zylindern von Verbrennungsmotoren,” MTZ Motortechnische Zeitschrift 51, pp.440-447, 1990.
- Bianchi, G.M., Pelloni, P., Corcione, F.E., Mattarelli, E., and Bertoni, F.L., “Numerical Study of the Combustion Chamber Shape for Common Rail HSDI Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper No. 2000-01-1179, 2000.
- Heywood, J.R., Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, p.351, McGraw-Hill, 1988.
- Townsend, A.A. The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flows, Ch.9, Cambridge University Press, 1976.